New Zealand - English - Medsafe (Medicines Safety Authority)
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NEW ZEALAND DATA SHEET
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
DBL Carboplatin Injection (all presentations) is a sterile solution of carboplatin in Water for
Injections BP. The vials contain 5, 15, 45 or of 10 mg/mL carboplatin. The solution does not
contain any preservatives.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
DBL Carboplatin Injection is a solution for injection.
It is clear, colourless or slightly yellow solution free from particulates and is presented in vials.
The pH of the injection ranges between 4.0 to 7.0.
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Carboplatin is indicated in the treatment of:
advanced stage ovarian cancer of epithelial origin
small cell lung carcinoma
carcinoma of the head and neck
carcinoma of the testis
paediatric cerebral tumours
soft tissue sarcoma
4.2 Dose and method of administration
Contains no antimicrobial agent. Product is for single use in one patient only. Discard
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Adults: The recommended dose of carboplatin in previously untreated adults with normal renal
function is 400 mg/m
given as a single intravenous infusion over 15 to 60 minutes. Therapy
should not be repeated until four weeks after the previous carboplatin course.
It is recommended that according to clinical circumstances the initial dosage may require
reduction by 20 to 25% in patients with risk factors such as increasing age, previous
myelosuppressive therapy and poor performance status.
Dosage modification may be required when carboplatin is used in combination with other
myelosuppressive drugs or radiation therapy, to minimise additive myelosuppressive effects.
Determination of haematologic nadir by weekly blood counts during initial courses is
recommended for future dosage adjustment and scheduling of carboplatin.
Impaired Renal Function: In patients with initial impaired renal function reduction of dosage
of carboplatin may be required. Haematologicial nadirs and renal function should be monitored
in these circumstances.
A suggested dosage schedule in patients with impaired renal function based on creatinine
clearance is as follows:
Dose of Carboplatin
Children: Sufficient usage of carboplatin in paediatrics has not occurred to allow specific
dosage recommendations to be made. Physicians are advised to refer to recently published
literature for information on the current dosing regimens for particular tumours.
Method of Administration
For instructions on dilution of the medicine before administration, see section 6.6.
Carboplatin is contraindicated in patients with the following conditions:
Pre-existing severe renal impairment; dose adjustment may allow use in the presence
of mild renal impairment (see section 4.2)
Pregnancy or lactation.
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4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Carboplatin should only be administered to patients under the supervision of a qualified
physician who is experienced in the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Diagnostic and treatment
facilities should be readily available for appropriate management of therapy and possible
Bone Marrow Function
Carboplatin should be administered with caution to patients with significant bleeding or with
bone marrow depression.
Peripheral blood counts and renal function should be monitored closely. Blood counts should
be performed prior to commencement of carboplatin therapy and weekly thereafter. Aside
from monitoring toxicity, this practice will help determine the nadir and recovery of the
haematological parameters and assist in the subsequent dose adjustments. Lowest levels in
white cells and platelets are generally seen between days 14 and 28, and days 14 and 21
respectively after initial therapy. A greater reduction in platelets is seen in patients who
previously received extensive myelosuppressive chemotheraphy than non-treated patients.
White blood cells counts less than 2x10
cells/L (2,000 cells/mm
) or platelets less than 50x10
cells/L (50,000 cells/mm
) should cause consideration of postponement of carboplatin therapy
until bone marrow recovery is evident, which is usually 5 to 6 weeks. Transfusions may be
The occurrence, severity and protraction of toxicity are likely to be greater in patients who have
received extensive prior treatment for their disease, have poor performance status and who are
more advance in age. Dosage reduction may be necessary is cases of severe toxicity.
Carboplatin courses should not, in general, be repeated more frequently than every four weeks
in order to ensure that the nadir in blood counts has occurred and that there has been recovery
to a satisfactory level.
Hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions to carboplatin have been reported. These allergic
reactions have been similar in nature and severity to those reported with other platinum
containing compounds. Symptoms include rash, urticaria, erythema, pruritus, bronchospasm
and hypotension. Patients should be monitored for possible anaphylactoid reactions and
appropriate equipment and medication should be readily available to treat such reactions (e.g.,
antihistamines, corticosteroids, epinephrine, oxygen) whenever carboplatin is administered.
Use in renal impairment
Renal function should be assessed prior to and during therapy. Myelosuppression as a result
of carboplatin treatment is closely related to the renal clearance of the drug. Therefore in
patients who have abnormal renal function or who are receiving concomitant therapy with
nephrotoxic drugs, myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia, may be more severe and
Renal toxicity is not usually dose-limiting. Pre-treatment and post-treatment hydration is not
necessary. However, about 25% of patients show decreases in creatinine clearance and, less
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frequently, rises in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen may be seen. Impairment of renal
function is more likely to be seen in patients who have previously experience nephrotoxicity
as a result of cisplatin therapy. Concomitant administration of other nephrotoxic drugs (e.g.,
aminoglycoside antibiotics) may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity (see section 4.5)
Central Nervous System (CNS)/Hearing Functions
Neurotoxicity, such as paraesthesias and decreased deep tendon reflexes, and ototoxicity are
more likely to be seen in patients who have received cisplatin previously. Routine neurologic
examination is advisable during carboplatin therapy, particularly in patients previously treated
with cisplatin and in patients over 65 years of age. Ototoxicity is cumulative. The frequency
and severity of hearing disorders increases with high dose regimens and repeated doses, or
prior treatment with cisplatin (as cisplatin is also toxic). Assessment of hearing should be
performed on a regular basis. The risk of ototoxicity may be increased by concomitant
administration of other ototoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides) (see section 4.5).
Delayed onset hearing loss has been reported in paediatric patients. Long-term audiometric
follow-up in this population is recommended.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS)
chemotherapy. RPLS is a rare, reversible after treatment discontinuation, rapidly evolving
blindness, and other visual and neurological disturbances. Diagnosis of RPLS is based upon
confirmation by brain imaging, preferably MRI.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
Haemolytic anemia with the presence of serologic drug-induced antibodies has been reported
in patients treated with carboplatin. This event can be fatal.
Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a potentially life-threatening side effect. Carboplatin
should be discontinued at the first sign of any evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic
anaemia, such as rapidly falling haemoglobin with concomitant thrombocytopenia, elevation
of serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
Renal failure may not be reversible with discontinuation of therapy and dialysis may be
Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid
Cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (sinusoidal obstructive syndrome) have been reported.
Some of them were fatal.
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Gastrointestinal, carboplatin can induce emesis. The incidence and severity of emesis may be
reduced by pre-treatment with antiemetics or by carboplatin administration as a continuous IV
infusion over 24 hours, or as IV administration of divided doses over 5 consecutive days rather
than a single infusion. Selective inhibitors of type 3 (5-HT3), serotonergic receptors (e.g.,
ondansetron) or substituted benzamides (e.g., metoclopramide) may be particularly effective
antiemetics and combination therapy may be considered for patients experiencing severe or
refractory emetogenic effects.
Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS)
Patients at high risk of TLS such as patients with high proliferative rate, high tumor burden and
high sensitivity to cytotoxic agents should be monitored closely and appropriate precaution
Immunosuppresant Effects/Increased Susceptibility to Infections
Administration of live or live attenuated vaccines in patients immunocompromised by
chemotherapeutic agents, including carboplatin, may result in serious or fatal infections.
Vaccination with a live vaccine should be avoided in patients receiving carboplatin. Killed or
inactivated vaccines may be administered; however the response to such vaccines may be
Carboplatin should be administered with caution to patients with herpes zoster, existing or
recent chicken pox, or recent exposure to chicken pox, due to the risk of severe generalised
disease. It should also be administered with caution to patients with other infections.
The myelosuppressive effects of carboplatin may adversely affect dental procedures, resulting
in an increased incidence of microbial infection, delayed healing and gingival bleeding. Where
possible, dental work should be completed prior to initiation of carboplatin therapy, or deferred
until blood counts have returned to normal. Patients should be instructed on proper oral
hygiene during treatment, including caution in the use of toothbrushes, dental floss and
Aluminium-containing equipment should not be used (see section 4.5).
Use in elderly patients
Carboplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy appears to be more common in those over 65 years
of age than in younger patients. Elderly patients may have decreased renal and haematopoietic
function, and may be more susceptible to other effects of the drug (see section 4.8).
Safety and efficacy in children have not been established.
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4.5 Interaction with other medicines and other forms of interaction
Carboplatin may interact with aluminium to form a black precipitate. Needles, syringes,
catheters or IV administration sets that contain aluminium parts which may come in contact
with carboplatin should not be used for preparation or administration of the drug (see section
Concurrent therapy with nephrotoxic drugs may increase or exacerbate toxicity due to
carboplatin-induced changes in renal clearance. Patients receiving aminoglycoside antibiotics
or other nephrotoxic drugs should not be treated with carboplatin.
Concomitant administration of carboplatin and aminoglycosides results in an increased risk of
ototoxicity, and the drugs should be used concurrently with caution.
Combination therapy with other myelosuppressive drugs may require modification of the dose
or timing of carboplatin therapy to minimize additive myelosuppressive effects. Dosage
reduction is recommended if carboplatin is administered concurrently with radiation therapy.
Vaccination with a live vaccine should be avoided in patients receiving carboplatin.
An increased incidence of emesis has been reported when carboplatin and other emetogenic
drugs are given concurrently or carboplatin is administered to patients who previously received
In patients who have previously received cisplatin, neurotoxicity such as paraesthesias,
decreased deep tendon reflexes, and ototoxicity are more likely to be seen. The frequency and
severity of hearing disorder increases with prior treatment with cisplatin (as cisplatin is also
ototoxic). Paraesthesias present prior to treatment, especially if caused by cisplatin, may persist
or worsen during carboplatin therapy.
In patients receiving carboplatin concomitantly with paclitaxel, myalgias and arthralgias
commonly occur. Fatigue has also been reported in patients receiving this combination.
Pain, most likely related to tumour size, and asthenia occur frequently in patients receiving
carboplatin in conjunction with cyclophosphamide. Visual disturbances have been reported in
patients receiving usual dosages of carboplatin in conjunction with cyclophosphamide.
A decrease in phenytoin serum levels has been observed with concurrent administration of
carboplatin and phenytoin/fosphenytoin. This may lead to exacerbation of seizures.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Both men and women receiving carboplatin should be informed of the potential risk of adverse
effects on reproduction. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming
pregnant by using effective contraception during treatment and up to 6 months after therapy.
For women who are pregnant or become pregnant during therapy, genetic counseling should
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Carboplatin is genotoxic. Men being treated with carboplatin are advised not to father a child
during and up to three months after treatment and to seek advice on conservation of sperm prior
to treatment because of the possibility of irreversible infertility due to therapy with carboplatin.
Male and female fertility may be impacted by treatment with carboplatin. Most forms of
chemotherapy have been associated with reduction of oogenesis and spermatogenesis and
patients receiving carboplatin should be warned of this potential. Although not reported with
carboplatin, this has been reported with other platinum agents. Recovery of fertility after
exposure can occur but is not guaranteed. Both men and women should seek advice for fertility
preservation before treatment with carboplatin.
Pregnancy – Category D
This category specifies drugs which have caused or may be expected to cause an increased
incidence of human foetal malformations or irreversible damage. These drugs may also have
mutagenic. Use in pregnancy is not recommended. Women of child bearing potential should
carboplatin, she should be advised of the potential hazard to the foetus.
It is not known whether carboplatin is excreted in breast milk. To avoid possible harmful
effects in the infant, breast-feeding is not advised during carboplatin therapy.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machinery
The effect of carboplatin on the ability to drive or use machinery has not been systematically
4.8 Undesirable effects
Myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity of carboplatin. It is generally reversible and is
not cumulative when carboplatin is used as single agent and at the recommended frequencies
Adverse effects which have been observed in studies to date can be grouped under the
following organ systems:-
Blood and lymphatic system disorders:
Leucopenia (55%), thrombocytopenia (32%),
anaemia (59%). Myelosuppression is dose-related, and appears to be most common and more
severe in patients who have received prior antineoplastic therapy (especially cisplatin), those
who have received or who are currently receiving other myelosuppressive drugs or radiation
therapy, and those with renal impairment. Transfusional support has been required in about
one-fifth of patients.
Haemolytic anemia (sometimes fatal) has also been reported.
Clinical sequelae of bone marrow/haematologic toxicity such as fever, infections, sepsis/septic
shock and haemorrhage may be expected.
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Haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been reported.
Nausea and vomiting (53%), nausea only (25%), diarrhoea (6%),
administration of carboplatin and disappear within 24 hours, but may persist for up to 3 days
in some patients. Vomiting may be delayed for 24 hours or longer after treatment in some
patients. Nausea and vomiting are readily controlled (or may be prevented) with antiemetic
medication. Gastrointestinal pain, mucositis and stomatitis have also been reported.
Renal and urinary disorders:
Decrease in creatinine clearance (25%); increases in uric acid
(25%), blood urea nitrogen (16%) and serum creatinine (7%). Acute renal failure has been
reported rarely. Mild and transient elevations of serum creatinine and of blood urea nitrogen
creatinine clearance) becomes more prominent at relatively high dosages or in patients
previously treated with Cisplatin.
Decreases in serum magnesium (37%), potassium (16%) and, rarely, calcium
(5%). Carboplatin may also cause decreases in serum sodium levels. These changes have not
been severe enough to cause clinical symptoms.
Nervous system disorders
: Peripheral neuropathy (6%) which was mild and dysgeusia
(<1%). Peripheral neuropathies may occur, mainly in the form of paraesthesias and
decreased deep tendon reflexes. The effect, more common in patients over 65 years of age,
appears to be cumulative, occurring mainly in patients receiving prolonged therapy and/or in
those who have received prior cisplatin therapy. CNS effects may also occur. In some cases
the neurotoxicity seen with carboplatin may be the result of a combination with some delayed
effect of prior cisplatin therapy. Central neurotoxicity has also been reported, although this
may be related to concomitant antiemetic therapy. Fatigue has been reported in patients
receiving carboplatin concomitantly with paclitaxel. Dysgeusia has been reported in patients
Ear and labyrinth disorders:
Subclinical decrease in hearing acuity as determined by
audiogram, in the high frequency (4,000 – 8,000Hz) range (15%); clinical ototoxicity, usually
manifested as tinnitus (1%). Pre-existing hearing impairment may persist or worsen with
carboplatin therapy. In patients who developed hearing loss as a result of cisplatin therapy, the
impairment may persist or worsen.
Increases in liver enzymes have been transient in the majority of
cases. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (30%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (15%),
bilirubin (4%). Substantial abnormalities in liver function test have been reported in patients
treated with carboplatin at high doses and autologous bone marrow transplantation.
Immune system disorders:
In less than 2% of patients reactions similar to those seen after
cisplatin have been observed. Erythematous rash, fever, perioral tingling, urticaria, pruritus,
bronchospasm, hypotension, hypoxia and pyrexia have been observed. Anaphylaxis and
anaphylactoid reactions have also occurred, while exfoliative dermatitis has been reported
rarely. In a few cases, no cross-reactivity was present. The frequency of allergic reactions is
higher in patients who receive carboplatin in conjunction with other antineoplastic agents.
Hypersensitivity reactions may occur within a few minutes after IV administration of
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Visual abnormalities, such as transient sight loss (which can be complete for
light and colours) or other disturbances may occur in patients treated with carboplatin.
Improvement and/or total recovery of vision usually occurs within weeks after the drug is
discontinued. Cortical blindness has been reported in patients with impaired renal function
receiving high-dose carboplatin.
Neoplasms Benign, Malignant and Unspecified:
There have been rare reports of acute
myelogenous leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes arising in patients who have been
treated with carboplatin, mostly when given in combination with other potentially
Cardiac failure; ischaemic coronary artery disorders (e.g., myocardial
infarction, cardiac arrest, angina, myocardial ischaemia), Kounis syndrome (vasospastic
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:
exfoliative dermatitis may rarely occur.
Erythematous rash, pruritus, urticaria, and alopecia have also been reported in association
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders:
Myalgia/arthralgia. This can
commonly occur in patients receiving carboplatin together with paclitaxel (see section 4.5).
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders:
electrolyte abnormalities (hypokalaemia,
hypocalcaemia, hyponatraemia and/or hypomagnesaemia).
alopecia (2%), flu-like syndrome (1%), reaction at injection site (<1%). Taste
abnormalities, and adverse respiratory and genitourinary effects have also been reported. Pain,
most likely related to tumour size, and asthenia occur frequently in patients receiving
carboplatin in conjunction with cyclophosphamide.
Reporting of Suspected Adverse Reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicine is important. It
No overdosage occurred during clinical trials. Should it occur, the patient may need to be
sustained through complications relating to myelosuppression, renal impairment and hepatic
impairment. From reports in which doses up to 1600 mg/m
were used, patients were said to
feel extremely unwell and developed diarrhoea and alopecia.
For advice on the management of overdose please contact the National Poisons Centre on 0800
POISON (0800 764766).
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5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Mechanism of action
Carboplatin, an analogue of cisplatin, is an antineoplastic agent which interferes with DNA
intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks in cells exposed to the drug. DNA reactivity has been
correlated with cytotoxicity.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
After a one-hour infusion of the drug (dose range 20 to 520 mg/m
) plasma levels of total
platinum and ultrafilterable (free) platinum decay biphasically following first order kinetics.
For ultrafilterable platinum reported values for the initial phases of the half life (t
about 90 minutes and in the later phase the half life (t
) is about 6 hours. Total platinum
elimination has a similar initial half life while in the later phase the half life of total platinum
may be greater than 24 hours. Carboplatin is a stable molecule. All free platinum is in the
form of carboplatin in the first 4 hours.
65% of the carboplatin dose is eliminated in the urine within 24 hours of administration with
32% of the dose being excreted as unchanged drug. Most of the drug is excreted in the first
Initially protein binding is low. During the first 4 hours after administration 0-29% of
carboplatin is protein bound. By 24 hours 85-89% is protein bound. Excretion of carboplatin
is by glomerular filtration. Patients with poor renal function have a higher Area Under Curve
for total platinum and a reduction in dosage is recommended.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Carboplatin has been shown to be mutagenic in mammalian cells. Patients should be advised
of its mutagenic potential and should use effective contraception for an adequate duration of
time after ceasing therapy.
No data available.
Reproductive and developmental toxicity
No data available.
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6.1 List of excipients
Water for injections
Carboplatin may interact with aluminium to form a black precipitate. Needles, syringes,
catheters or intravenous administration sets that contain aluminium parts which may come in
contact with carboplatin should not be used for preparation or administration of the drug.
Parenteral drugs should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discolouration, prior
administration, whenever solution and container permit. If particulate matter observed, shake
and re-inspect. Vials with visible particulate matter should not be used.
6.3 Shelf life
24 months from date of manufacture stored at or below 25°C
6.4 Special precautions for storage
DBL Carboplatin Injection (glass vials) should be stored at or below 25
C. Do not freeze.
Protect from light.
Carboplatin has been found to be stable for 24 hours when mixed within 5% glucose in water.
These products contain no antimicrobial agent. However in order to reduce microbiological
contamination hazard, infusion should be commenced as soon as practicable after preparation.
Infusion should be completed with in 24 hours of preparation and any residue discarded.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
1 x 5 mL glass vial
1 x 20 mL glass vial
1 x 50 mL glass vial
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Preparation of Carboplatin Solution
Equipment containing aluminium components should be avoided (See section 4.4). DBL
Carboplatin Injection is a ready to use solution containing 10 mg/mL carboplatin is Water for
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The injections may be further diluted in 5% Glucose Intravenous Infusion B.P. To reduce
microbiological hazard, use as soon as practicable after preparation. If storage is necessary,
hold at 2-8
C for not more than 24 hours.
Carboplatin should be prepared for administration only by professionals who have been
trained in the safe use of the preparation.
Operations such as transfer to syringes should be carried out only in the designated area.
The personnel carrying out these procedures should be adequately protected with
clothing, gloves and eye shield.
Pregnant personnel are advised not to handle chemotherapeutic agents.
In the event of contact with the skin or eyes, the affected area should be washed with
copious amounts of water or normal saline. A bland cream may be used to treat transient
stinging of the skin. Medical advice should be sought if the eyes are affected.
In the event of spillage, operators should put on gloves and mop up the spilled material
with a sponge kept in the area for that purpose. Rinse the area twice with water. Put all
solutions and sponges into a plastic bag and then seal it. The bag should be prominently
labelled with the words “Cytotoxic Waste” or similar.
Syringes, containers, absorbent materials, solution and any other material which has come into
contact with carboplatin should be placed in a thick plastic bag or other impervious container
and incinerated at 1000
C or more.
Pfizer New Zealand Limited
P O Box 3998
Auckland, New Zealand
Toll Free Number: 0800 736 363
DATE OF FIRST APPROVAL
21 July 1989
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10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
21 January 2020
™ = Trademark
SUMMARY TABLE OF CHANGES
Summary of new information
Minor editorial changes.
Addition of information concerning reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy