Bofunir 160 mikrogram/4,5 mikrogram/inhalation, Inhalationspulver, avdelad dos

Sverige - svenska - Läkemedelsverket (Medical Products Agency)

Produktens egenskaper Produktens egenskaper (SPC)


Aktiva substanser:
budesonid; formoterolfumaratdihydrat
Tillgänglig från:
Sandoz A/S,
INN (International namn):
budesonide; formoterol
160 mikrogram/4,5 mikrogram/inhalation,
Inhalationspulver, avdelad dos
laktosmonohydrat Hjälpämne; formoterolfumaratdihydrat 4,5 mikrog Aktiv substans; budesonid 160 mikrog Aktiv substans
Receptbelagda typ:
Förpacknings: Inhalator, 1 x 60 doser; Inhalator, 6 x 60 doser; Inhalator, 4 x 60 doser; Inhalator, 3 x 60 doser; Inhalator, 2 x 60 doser
Bemyndigande status:
Tillstånd datum:

Dokument på andra språk

Bipacksedel Bipacksedel - engelska


Produktens egenskaper Produktens egenskaper - engelska


Offentlig bedömningsrapport Offentlig bedömningsrapport - engelska


Läs hela dokumentet




{Bofunir, 160 micrograms/4.5 micrograms/inhalation, inhalation powder, pre-dispensed}



Each delivered dose (inhaled dose) contains 160 micrograms of budesonide and 4.5 micrograms of

formoterol fumarate dihydrate.

Each metered dose (pre-dispensed dose contained in the blister) contains 194.7 micrograms of

budesonide and 6.1 micrograms of formoterol fumarate dihydrate.

Excipient with known effect

Lactose monohydrate: 5.4 mg per metered dose

and 4.4 mg per delivered dose.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.



Inhalation powder, pre-dispensed.

White to off-white or slightly yellow powder with no agglomerates.




Therapeutic indications


[Nationally completed name] is indicated in adults and adolescents (12 years and older) for the

regular treatment of asthma, where use of a combination (inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting β

adrenoceptor agonist) is appropriate:

patients not adequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and “as needed” inhaled short-

acting β

adrenoceptor agonists.

patients already adequately controlled on both inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β

adrenoceptor agonists.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

[Nationally completed name] is indicated in adults, aged 18 years and older, for the symptomatic

treatment of patients with COPD with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV

) <70% predicted

normal (post bronchodilator) and an exacerbation history despite regular bronchodilator therapy (see

also section 4.4).


Posology and method of administration

Route of administration: for inhalation use.



[Nationally completed name] is not intended for the initial management of asthma. The required dose

of each component of [Nationally completed name] is individual and should be adjusted to the

severity of the disease. This should be considered not only when treatment with combination products

is initiated but also when the maintenance dose is adjusted. If an individual patient should require a

combination of doses other than that available in the combination inhaler, appropriate doses of β

adrenoceptor agonists and/or corticosteroids by individual inhalers should be prescribed.

The dose should be titrated to the lowest dose at which effective control of symptoms is maintained.

Patients should be regularly reassessed by their prescriber/health care provider so that the dose of

budesonide/formoterol remains optimal. When long-term control of symptoms is maintained with the

lowest recommended dose, then the next step could include a test of inhaled corticosteroid alone.

When it is appropriate to titrate down to a lower strength or to prescribe a higher strength than is

available for [Nationally competed name], a change to an alternative fixed-dose combination of

budesonide and formoterol fumarate containing a lower or a higher dose of the inhaled corticosteroid,

respectively, is required.

For [Nationally completed name] there are two treatment approaches:

A. [Nationally completed name] maintenance therapy:

[Nationally completed name] is taken as

regular maintenance treatment with a separate rapid-acting bronchodilator as rescue.

B. [Nationally completed name] maintenance and reliever therapy:

[Nationally completed name]

is taken as regular maintenance treatment and as needed in response to symptoms.

A. [Nationally completed name] maintenance therapy

Patients should be advised to have their separate rapid-acting bronchodilator available for rescue use

at all times.

Recommended doses:

Adults (18 years and older):

1-2 inhalations twice daily. Some patients may require up to a maximum

of 4 inhalations twice daily.

Adolescents (12 – 17 years):

1-2 inhalations twice daily.

In usual practice when control of symptoms is achieved with the twice daily regimen, titration to the

lowest effective dose could include [Nationally completed name] given once daily, when in the

opinion of the prescriber, a long-acting bronchodilator in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid

would be required to maintain control.

Increasing use of a separate rapid-acting bronchodilator indicates a worsening of the underlying

condition and warrants a reassessment of the asthma therapy.

Children under 12 years:

As no data are available, [Nationally completed name] is not recommended

for children younger than 12 years.

B. [Nationally completed name] maintenance and reliever therapy

Patients take a daily maintenance dose of [Nationally completed name] and in addition take

[Nationally completed name] as needed in response to symptoms. Patients should be advised to

always have [Nationally completed name] available for rescue use.

[Nationally completed name] maintenance and reliever therapy should especially be considered for

patients with:

inadequate asthma control and in frequent need of reliever therapy

asthma exacerbations in the past requiring medical intervention

Close monitoring for dose-related adverse reactions is needed in patients who frequently take high

numbers of [Nationally completed name] as-needed inhalations.

Recommended doses:

Adults and adolescents (12 years and older):

The recommended maintenance dose is 2 inhalations per

day, given either as one inhalation in the morning and evening or as 2 inhalations in either the

morning or evening. For some patients a maintenance dose of 2 inhalations twice daily may be

appropriate. Patients should take 1 additional inhalation as needed in response to symptoms. If

symptoms persist after a few minutes, an additional inhalation should be taken. Not more than 6

inhalations should be taken on any single occasion.

A total daily dose of more than 8 inhalations is not normally needed; however, a total daily dose of up

to 12 inhalations could be used for a limited period. Patients using more than 8 inhalations daily

should be strongly recommended to seek medical advice. They should be reassessed and their

maintenance therapy should be reconsidered.

Children under 12 years:

[Nationally completed name] maintenance and reliever therapy is not

recommended for children.


Recommended doses:


2 inhalations twice daily

General information

Special populations:

There are no special dosing requirements for elderly patients. There are no data available for use of

[Nationally completed name] in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. As budesonide and

formoterol are primarily eliminated via hepatic metabolism, an increased exposure can be expected in

patients with severe liver cirrhosis.

Method of administration

Instructions for use:

Patients should be demonstrated how to use the Forspiro inhaler and correct use should be checked


The inhaler contains 60 doses of powder medicinal product in a coiled strip of foil. It has a dose

counter which indicates how many doses are left counting down from 60 to 0. When the last 10 doses

have been reached the numbers will be on a red background.

The inhaler is not refillable – it should be disposed of when it is empty and be replaced with a new


Before using the inhaler

The transparent side chamber door should be opened.

The foil strip should be removed from the side chamber by carefully tearing away the full

length of strip against the ‘teeth’ of the side chamber as shown below.

The strip should

not be

pulled or tugged

The side chamber door should be closed and the used strip should be disposed of.


As the inhaler is used the side chamber will gradually fill up with used strip. The foil strips


black bars don’t contain medicinal product

. Eventually the numbered sections of the strip will

appear in the side chamber.

There should never be more than 2 sections of foil strip

in the side

chamber as they may cause the inhaler to jam. The strip should be torn away carefully as shown

above, and disposed of safely.

Using the inhaler

The inhaler should be held in hands, as seen in the pictures.



The protective

cap should be opened downwards

to reveal the mouthpiece.

The dose counter should be checked to see how many doses are left.


Preparation of the dose

The edge of the

white lever should be lifted up

. The side chamber should be closed.


: The white lever should only be operated when the patient is ready to inhale a dose of the

medicinal product. If the patient plays with the white lever he/she will waste doses.


white lever should be moved over fully

as far as it will go and

until it clicks

This action moves a new dose into position with the number at the top.


Afterwards the

white lever should be closed fully

so that it


back into its

original position. The inhaler is now ready for immediate use.


Inhalation of the dose

Away from the inhaler mouthpiece, the patient should breathe out as much as is comfortable


It should

never be breathed directly into

the inhaler as this could affect the dose.

The inhaler should be hold level with the

protective cap pointing downwards

The lips should be closed firmly around the mouthpiece.

The patient should breathe in as deeply and as hard as possible through the inhaler, not

through the nose.

The inhaler should be removed from the mouth and the

breath should be held for 5-

10 seconds

or as long as is possible without causing discomfort.

Afterwards, the patient should breathe out slowly,

but not into the inhaler

The protective cap should be closed over the mouthpiece.

The mouth should be rinsed with water, which should be spat out afterwards. This may help

to prevent getting fungal infection in the mouth and becoming hoarse.


The outside of the mouthpiece should be wiped with a clean, dry tissue if necessary.

The inhaler should not be taken apart to clean it or for any other purpose!

The inhaler parts must not be cleaned with water or wet wipes as dampness can affect the


Pins or other sharp objects must never be inserted into the mouthpiece, or any other part, as

this may damage the inhaler!



Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.


Special warnings and precautions for use

It is recommended that the dose is tapered when the treatment is discontinued and should not be

stopped abruptly.

If patients find the treatment ineffective, or exceed the highest recommended dose of [Nationally

completed name], medical attention must be sought (see section 4.2). Sudden and progressive

deterioration in control of asthma or COPD is potentially life threatening and the patient should

undergo urgent medical assessment. In this situation, consideration should be given to the need for

increased therapy with corticosteroids e.g. a course of oral corticosteroids, or antibiotic treatment if

an infection is present.

Patients should be advised to have their rescue inhaler available at all times, either [Nationally

completed name] (for asthma patients using [Nationally completed name] as maintenance and reliever

therapy) or a separate rapid-acting bronchodilator (for all patients using [Nationally completed name]

as maintenance therapy only).

Patients should be reminded to take their [Nationally completed name] maintenance dose as

prescribed, even when asymptomatic. The prophylactic use of [Nationally completed name], e.g.

before exercise, has not been studied. The reliever inhalations of [Nationally completed name] should

be taken in response to asthma symptoms but are not intended for regular prophylactic use, e.g. before

exercise. For such use, a separate rapid-acting bronchodilator should be considered.

Once asthma symptoms are controlled, consideration may be given to gradually reducing the dose of

[Nationally completed name]. Regular review of patients as treatment is stepped down is important.

The lowest effective dose of [Nationally completed name] should be used (see section 4.2).

Patients should not be initiated on [Nationally completed name] during an exacerbation, or if they

have significantly worsening or acutely deteriorating asthma.

Serious asthma-related adverse events and exacerbations may occur during treatment with [Nationally

completed name]. Patients should be asked to continue treatment but to seek medical advice if asthma

symptoms remain uncontrolled or worsen after initiation with [Nationally completed name].

There are no clinical study data on budesonide/formoterol available in COPD patients with a pre-

bronchodilator FEV

>50% predicted normal and with a post-bronchodilator FEV

<70% predicted

normal (see section 5.1).

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur, with an immediate increase

in wheezing and shortness of breath, after dosing. If the patient experiences paradoxical

bronchospasm [Nationally completed name] should be discontinued immediately, the patient should

be assessed and an alternative therapy instituted, if necessary. Paradoxical bronchospasm responds to

a rapid-acting inhaled bronchodilator and should be treated straightaway (see section 4.8).

Systemic effects may occur with any inhaled corticosteroid, particularly at high doses prescribed for

long periods. These effects are much less likely to occur with inhalation treatment than with oral

corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal

suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density,

cataract and glaucoma, and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including

psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in

children) (see section 4.8).

Potential effects on bone density should be considered particularly in patients on high doses for

prolonged periods that have co-existing risk factors for osteoporosis. Long-term studies with inhaled

budesonide in children at mean daily doses of 400 micrograms (metered dose) or in adults at daily

doses of 800 micrograms (metered dose) have not shown any significant effects on bone mineral

density. No information regarding the effect of budesonide/formoterol at higher doses is available.

If there is any reason to suppose that adrenal function is impaired from previous systemic steroid

therapy, care should be taken when transferring patients to [Nationally completed name] therapy.

The benefits of inhaled budesonide therapy would normally minimise the need for oral steroids, but

patients transferring from oral steroids may remain at risk of impaired adrenal reserve for a

considerable time. Recovery may take a considerable amount of time after cessation of oral steroid

therapy and hence oral steroid-dependent patients transferred to inhaled budesonide may remain at

risk from impaired adrenal function for some considerable time. In such circumstances HPA axis

function should be monitored regularly.

The prolonged treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids, particularly higher than

recommended doses, may also result in clinically significant adrenal suppression. Therefore,

additional systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress such as severe

infections or elective surgery. Rapid reduction in the dose of steroids can induce acute adrenal crisis.

Symptoms and signs which might be seen in acute adrenal crisis may be somewhat vague but may

include anorexia, abdominal pain, weight loss, tiredness, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased level

of consciousness, seizures, hypotension and hypoglycaemia.

Treatment with supplementary systemic steroids or inhaled budesonide should not be stopped


During transfer from oral therapy to [Nationally completed name], a generally lower systemic steroid

action will be experienced which may result in the appearance of allergic or arthritic symptoms such

as rhinitis, eczema and muscle and joint pain.

Specific treatment should be initiated for these conditions. A general insufficient glucocorticosteroid

effect should be suspected if, in rare cases, symptoms such as tiredness, headache, nausea and

vomiting should occur. In these cases a temporary increase in the dose of oral glucocorticosteroids is

sometimes necessary.

To minimise the risk of oropharyngeal candida infection (see section 4.8), the patient should be

instructed to rinse their mouth out with water after inhaling the maintenance dose. If oropharyngeal

thrush occurs, patients should also rinse their mouth with water after the as-needed inhalations.

Concomitant treatment with itraconazole, ritonavir or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors should be

avoided (see section 4.5). If this is not possible the time interval between administration of the

interacting medicinal products should be as long as possible. In patients using potent CYP3A4

inhibitors, [Nationally completed name] maintenance and reliever therapy is not recommended.

Co-treatment with CYP3A inhibitors, including cobicistat-containing products, is expected to increase

the risk of systemic side-effects. The combination should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the

increased risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects.

[Nationally completed name] should be administered with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis,

phaeochromocytoma, diabetes mellitus, untreated hypokalaemia, hypertrophic obstructive

cardiomyopathy, idiopathic subvalvular aortic stenosis, severe hypertension, aneurysm or other severe

cardiovascular disorders, such as ischaemic heart disease, tachyarrhythmias or severe heart failure.

Caution should be observed when treating patients with prolongation of the QTc-interval. Formoterol

itself may induce prolongation of the QTc-interval.

The need for, and dose of inhaled corticosteroids should be re-evaluated in patients with active or

quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis, fungal and viral infections in the airways.

Potentially serious hypokalaemia may result from high doses of β

adrenoceptor agonists.

Concomitant treatment of β

adrenoceptor agonists with medicinal products which can induce

hypokalaemia or potentiate a hypokalaemic effect, e.g. xanthine derivatives, steroids and diuretics,

may add to a possible hypokalaemic effect of the β

adrenoceptor agonist. Particular caution is

recommended in unstable asthma with variable use of rescue bronchodilators, in acute severe asthma

as the associated risk may be augmented by hypoxia and in other conditions when the likelihood for

hypokalaemia is increased. It is recommended that serum potassium levels are monitored during these


As for all β

adrenoceptor agonists, additional blood glucose controls should be considered in diabetic


Visual disturbance

Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents

with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered

for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract,

glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported

after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.

[Nationally completed name] contains lactose monohydrate (4.4 mg/inhalation). This amount does not

normally cause problems in lactose intolerant people. The excipient lactose contains small amounts of

milk proteins, which may cause allergic reactions.

Paediatric population

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled

corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be re-evaluated with the

aim of reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid to the lowest dose at which effective control of

asthma is maintained, if possible. The benefits of the corticosteroid therapy and the possible risks of

growth suppression must be carefully weighed. In addition consideration should be given to referring

the patient to a paediatric respiratory specialist.

Limited data from long-term studies suggest that most children and adolescents treated with inhaled

budesonide will ultimately achieve their adult target height. However, an initial small but transient

reduction in growth (approximately 1 cm) has been observed. This generally occurs within the first

year of treatment.

Pneumonia in patients with COPD

An increase in the incidence of pneumonia, including pneumonia requiring hospitalisation, has been

observed in patients with COPD receiving inhaled corticosteroids. There is some evidence of an

increased risk of pneumonia with increasing steroid dose but this has not been demonstrated

conclusively across all studies.

There is no conclusive clinical evidence for intra-class differences in the magnitude of the pneumonia

risk among inhaled corticosteroid products.

Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD

as the clinical features of such infections overlap with the symptoms of COPD exacerbations.

Risk factors for pneumonia in patients with COPD include current smoking, older age, low body mass

index (BMI) and severe COPD.


Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Pharmacokinetic interactions

Potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole,

clarithromycin, telithromycin, nefazodone, cobicistat and HIV protease inhibitors) are likely to

markedly increase plasma levels of budesonide and concomitant use should be avoided. If this is not

possible the time interval between administration of the inhibitor and budesonide should be as long as

possible (section 4.4). In patients using potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, [Nationally completed name]

maintenance and reliever therapy is not recommended.

The potent CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole, 200 mg once daily, increased plasma levels of

concomitantly orally administered budesonide (single dose of 3 mg) on average six-fold. When

ketoconazole was administered 12 hours after budesonide the concentration was on average increased

only three-fold showing that separation of the administration times can reduce the increase in plasma

levels. Limited data about this interaction for high-dose inhaled budesonide indicates that marked

increase in plasma levels (on average four fold) may occur if itraconazole, 200 mg once daily, is

administered concomitantly with inhaled budesonide (single dose of 1000 μg).

Pharmacodynamic interactions

Beta-adrenergic blockers can weaken or inhibit the effect of formoterol. [Nationally completed name]

should therefore not be given together with beta-adrenergic blockers (including eye drops) unless

there are compelling reasons.

Concomitant treatment with quinidine, disopyramide, procainamide, phenothiazines, antihistamines

(terfenadine) and tricyclic antidepressants can prolong the QTc-interval and increase the risk of

ventricular arrhythmias.

In addition L-Dopa, L-thyroxine, oxytocin and alcohol can impair cardiac tolerance towards β


Concomitant treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, including agents with similar properties

such as furazolidone and procarbazine, may precipitate hypertensive reactions.

There is an elevated risk of arrhythmias in patients receiving concomitant anaesthesia with

halogenated hydrocarbons.

Concomitant use of other beta-adrenergic or anticholinergic medicinal products can have a potentially

additive bronchodilating effect.

Hypokalaemia may increase the disposition towards arrhythmias in patients who are treated with

digitalis glycosides.

Hypokalaemia may result from beta2-agonist therapy and may be potentiated by concomitant

treatment with xanthine derivatives, corticosteroids and diuretics (see section 4.4).

Budesonide and formoterol have not been observed to interact with any other medicinal products used

in the treatment of asthma.

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.


Fertility, pregnancy and lactation


For budesonide/formoterol or the concomitant treatment with formoterol and budesonide, no clinical

data on exposed pregnancies are available. Data from an embryo-foetal development study in the rat,

showed no evidence of any additional effect from the combination.

There are no adequate data from use of formoterol in pregnant women. In animal studies formoterol

has caused adverse reactions in reproduction studies at very high systemic exposure levels (see

section 5.3).

Data on approximately 2000 exposed pregnancies indicate no increased teratogenic risk associated

with the use of inhaled budesonide. In animal studies glucocorticoids have been shown to induce

malformations (see section 5.3). This is not likely to be relevant for humans given recommended


Animal studies have also identified an involvement of excess prenatal glucocorticoids in increased

risks for intrauterine growth retardation, adult cardiovascular disease and permanent changes in

glucocorticoid receptor density, neurotransmitter turnover and behaviour at exposures below the

teratogenic dose range.

During pregnancy, [Nationally completed name] should only be used when the benefits outweigh the

potential risks. The lowest effective dose of budesonide needed to maintain adequate asthma control

should be used.


Budesonide is excreted in breast milk. However, at therapeutic doses no effects on the suckling child

are anticipated. It is not known whether formoterol passes into human breast milk. In rats, small

amounts of formoterol have been detected in maternal milk. Administration of [Nationally completed

name] to women who are breast-feeding should only be considered if the expected benefit to the

mother is greater than any possible risk to the child.


There is no data available on the potential effect of budesonide on fertility. Animal reproduction

studies with formoterol have shown a somewhat reduced fertility in male rats at high systemic

exposure (see section 5.3).


Effects on ability to drive and use machines

[Nationally completed name] has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.


Undesirable effects

Since [Nationally completed name] contains both budesonide and formoterol, the same pattern of

undesirable effects as reported for these substances may occur. No increased incidence of adverse

reactions has been seen following concurrent administration of the two compounds. The most

common related adverse drug reactions are pharmacologically predictable side-effects of β

adrenoceptor agonist therapy, such as tremor and palpitations. These tend to be mild and usually

disappear within a few days of treatment.

Adverse reactions which have been associated with budesonide or formoterol are given below, listed

by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥1/10); common

(≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare

(<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Frequencies were derived from clinical trial data. The incidence in placebo was not taken into


Table 1

System Organ Class


Adverse Reaction

Infections and



Candida infections in the oropharynx

Pneumonia (in COPD patients)

Immune system disorders


Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, e.g.

exanthema, urticaria, pruritus, dermatitis, angioedema

and anaphylactic reaction

Endocrine disorders

Very rare

Cushing's syndrome

Adrenal suppression

Growth retardation

Decrease in bone mineral density



Metabolism and nutrition


Very rare




Psychomotor hyperactivity


Sleep disorders

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare


Behavioural changes (predominantly in children)






Nervous system disorders

Very rare

Taste disturbances


Blurred vision (see also section 4.4)

Eye disorders

Very rare

Cataract and glaucoma

Cardiac disorders






Cardiac arrhythmias, e.g. atrial fibrillation,

supraventricular tachycardia, extrasystoles

Very rare

Angina pectoris

Prolongation of QTc-interval

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Variations in blood pressure


Mild irritation in the throat


Dysphonia including hoarseness

Respiratory, thoracic and

mediastinal disorders



Gastrointestinal disorders



Skin and subcutaneous

tissue disorders



Musculoskeletal and

connective tissue



Muscle cramps

Candida infection in the oropharynx is due to medicinal product deposition. Advising the patient to

rinse the mouth out with water after each maintenance dose will minimize the risk. Oropharyngeal

Candida infection usually responds to topical antifungal treatment without the need to discontinue the

inhaled corticosteroid. If oropharyngeal thrush occurs, patients should also rinse their mouth with

water after the as-needed inhalations.

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur very rarely, affecting less than

1 in 10,000 people, with an immediate increase in wheezing and shortness of breath after dosing.

Paradoxical bronchospasm responds to a rapid-acting inhaled bronchodilator and should be treated

straightaway. [Nationally completed name] should be discontinued immediately, the patient should be

assessed and an alternative therapy instituted if necessary (see section 4.4).

Systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for

prolonged periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible

systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth

retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density, cataract and glaucoma.

Increased susceptibility to infections and impairment of the ability to adapt to stress may also occur.

Effects are probably dependent on dose, exposure time, concomitant and previous steroid exposure

and individual sensitivity.

Treatment with β

adrenoceptor agonists may result in an increase in blood levels of insulin, free fatty

acids, glycerol and ketone bodies.

Paediatric population

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled

corticosteroids is regularly monitored (see section 4.4).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It

allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare

professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system

listed in [To be completed nationally].



An overdose of formoterol would likely lead to effects that are typical for β

adrenoceptor agonists:

tremor, headache, palpitations. Symptoms reported from isolated cases are tachycardia,

hyperglycaemia, hypokalaemia, prolonged QTc-interval, arrhythmia, nausea and vomiting. Supportive

and symptomatic treatment may be indicated. A dose of 90 micrograms administered during three

hours in patients with acute bronchial obstruction raised no safety concerns.

Acute overdose with budesonide, even in excessive doses, is not expected to be a clinical problem.

When used chronically in excessive doses, systemic glucocorticoid effects, such as hypercorticism

and adrenal suppression, may appear.

If [Nationally completed name] therapy has to be withdrawn due to overdose of the formoterol

component of the medicinal product, provision of appropriate inhaled corticosteroid therapy must be





Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs for obstructive airway diseases: Adrenergics, Inhalants

ATC-code: R03AK07

Mechanisms of action and Pharmacodynamic effects

This medicinal product contains formoterol and budesonide, which have different modes of action

and show additive effects in terms of reduction of asthma exacerbations. The specific properties of

budesonide and formoterol allow the combination to be used either as maintenance and reliever

therapy or as maintenance treatment of asthma.


Budesonide is a glucocorticosteroid which when inhaled has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory

action in the airways, resulting in reduced symptoms and fewer asthma exacerbations. Inhaled

budesonide has less severe adverse reactions than systemic corticosteroids. The exact mechanism

responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticosteroids is unknown.


Formoterol is a selective β

adrenoceptor agonist that, when inhaled, results in rapid and long-acting

relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle in patients with reversible airways obstruction. The

bronchodilating effect is dose dependent, with an onset of effect within 1-3 minutes. The duration of

effect is at least 12 hours after a single dose.

Clinical efficacy and safety


Clinical efficacy for budesonide/formoterol maintenance therapy

Clinical studies in adults have shown that the addition of formoterol to budesonide improved asthma

symptoms and lung function, and reduced exacerbations. In two 12-week studies the effect on lung

function of budesonide/formoterol was equal to that of the free combination of budesonide and

formoterol, and exceeded that of budesonide alone. All treatment arms used a short-acting β

adrenoceptor agonist as needed. There was no sign of attenuation of the antiasthmatic effect over


Two 12-week paediatric studies have been performed in which 265 children aged 6-11 years were

treated with a maintenance dose of budesonide/formoterol (2 inhalations of 80 micrograms /4.5

micrograms/inhalation twice daily), and a short acting β

adrenoceptor agonist as needed. In both

studies, lung function was improved and the treatment was well tolerated compared to the

corresponding dose of budesonide alone.

Clinical efficacy for budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy

A total of 12,076 asthma patients were included in 5 double-blind efficacy and safety studies (4,447

were randomised to budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy) for 6 or 12 months.

Patients were required to be symptomatic despite use of inhaled glucocorticosteroids.

Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy provided statistically significant and

clinically meaningful reductions in severe exacerbations for all comparisons in all 5 studies. This

included a comparison with budesonide/formoterol at a higher maintenance dose with terbutaline as

reliever (study 735) and budesonide/formoterol at the same maintenance dose with either formoterol

or terbutaline as reliever (study 734) (Table 2). In Study 735, lung function, symptom control, and

reliever use were similar in all treatment groups. In Study 734, symptoms and reliever use were

reduced and lung function improved, compared with both comparator treatments. In the 5 studies

combined, patients receiving budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy used, on

average, no reliever inhalations on 57% of treatment days. There was no sign of development of

tolerance over time.

Table 2 Overview of severe exacerbations in clinical studies.

Severe exacerbations


Study No.


Treatment groups
















Study 735

6 months

Budesonide/formoterol 320/9 μg bd + terbutaline

0.4 mg as needed



Salmeterol/fluticasone 2 x 25/125 μg bd +

terbutaline 0.4 mg as needed














Budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg bd +

formoterol 4.5 μg as needed



Study 734

12 months

Budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg bd +

terbutaline 0.4 mg as needed



Hospitalisation/emergency room treatment or treatment with oral steroids.

Reduction in exacerbation rate is statistically significant (P value <0.01) for both comparisons.

Comparable efficacy and safety in adolescents and adults was demonstrated in 6 double-blind studies,

comprising the 5 studies mentioned above and an additional study using a higher maintenance dose of

160/4.5 micrograms, two inhalations twice daily. These assessments were based on a total of 14,385

asthma patients of whom 1,847 were adolescents. The number of adolescent patients taking more than

8 inhalations on at least one day as part of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy

was limited, and such use was infrequent.

In 2 other studies with patients seeking medical attention due to acute asthma symptoms,

budesonide/formoterol provided rapid and effective relief of bronchoconstriction similar to

salbutamol and formoterol.


In two 12-month studies, the effect on lung function and the rate of exacerbation (defined as courses

of oral steroids and/or course of antibiotics and/or hospitalisations) in patients with moderate to

severe COPD was evaluated. The inclusion criteria for both studies was pre-bronchodilator FEV

<50% predicted normal. Median post-bronchodilator FEV

at inclusion in the trials was 42%

predicted normal.

The mean number of exacerbations per year (as defined above) was significantly reduced with

budesonide/formoterol as compared with treatment with formoterol alone or placebo (mean rate 1.4

compared with 1.8-1.9 in the placebo/formoterol group). The mean number of days on oral

corticosteroids/patient during the 12 months was slightly reduced in the budesonide/formoterol group

(7-8 days/patient/year compared with 11-12 and 9-12 days in the placebo and formoterol groups,

respectively). For changes in lung-function parameters, such as FEV

, budesonide/formoterol was not

superior to treatment with formoterol alone.


Pharmacokinetic properties


The fixed-dose combination of budesonide and formoterol, and the corresponding mono-products

have been shown to be bioequivalent with regard to systemic exposure of budesonide and formoterol,

respectively. In spite of this, a small increase in cortisol suppression was seen after administration of

the fixed-dose combination compared to the mono-products. The difference is considered not to have

an impact on clinical safety.

There was no evidence of pharmacokinetic interactions between budesonide and formoterol.

Pharmacokinetic parameters for the respective substances were comparable after the administration of

budesonide and formoterol as monoproducts or as the fixed-dose combination. For budesonide, AUC

was slightly higher, rate of absorption more rapid and maximal plasma concentration higher after

administration of the fixed combination. For formoterol, maximal plasma concentration was similar

after administration of the fixed combination. Inhaled budesonide is rapidly absorbed and the

maximum plasma concentration is reached within 30 minutes after inhalation. In studies, mean lung

deposition of budesonide after inhalation via the powder inhaler ranged from 32% to 44% of the

delivered dose. The systemic bioavailability is approximately 49% of the delivered dose. In children

6-16 years of age the lung deposition falls in the same range as in adults for the same given dose. The

resulting plasma concentrations were not determined.

Inhaled formoterol is rapidly absorbed and the maximum plasma concentration is reached within 10

minutes after inhalation. In studies the mean lung deposition of formoterol after inhalation via the

powder inhaler ranged from 28% to 49% of the delivered dose. The systemic bioavailability is about

61% of the delivered dose.

Distribution and biotransformation

Plasma protein binding is approximately 50% for formoterol and 90% for budesonide. Volume of

distribution is about 4 l/kg for formoterol and 3 l/kg for budesonide. Formoterol is inactivated via

conjugation reactions (active O-demethylated and deformylated metabolites are formed, but they are

seen mainly as inactivated conjugates). Budesonide undergoes an extensive degree (approximately

90%) of biotransformation on first passage through the liver to metabolites of low glucocorticosteroid

activity. The glucocorticosteroid activity of the major metabolites, 6-betahydroxy-budesonide and 16-

alfa-hydroxy-prednisolone, is less than 1% of that of budesonide. There are no indications of any

metabolic interactions or any displacement reactions between formoterol and budesonide.


The major part of a dose of formoterol is transformed by liver metabolism followed by renal

elimination. After inhalation, 8% to 13% of the delivered dose of formoterol is excreted

unmetabolised in the urine. Formoterol has a high systemic clearance (approximately 1.4 l/min) and

the terminal elimination half-life averages 17 hours.

Budesonide is eliminated via metabolism mainly catalysed by the enzyme CYP3A4. The metabolites

of budesonide are eliminated in urine as such or in conjugated form. Only negligible amounts of

unchanged budesonide have been detected in the urine. Budesonide has a high systemic clearance

(approximately 1.2 l/min) and the plasma elimination half-life after i.v. dosing averages 4 hours.

The pharmacokinetics of budesonide or formoterol in patients with renal failure are unknown. The

exposure of budesonide and formoterol may be increased in patients with liver disease.


Systemic exposure for both budesonide and formoterol correlates in a linear fashion to administered



Preclinical safety data

The toxicity observed in animal studies with budesonide and formoterol, given in combination or

separately, were effects associated with exaggerated pharmacological activity.

In animal reproduction studies, corticosteroids such as budesonide have been shown to induce

malformations (cleft palate, skeletal malformations). However, these animal experimental results do

not seem to be relevant in humans at the recommended doses. Animal reproduction studies with

formoterol have shown a somewhat reduced fertility in male rats at high systemic exposure and

implantation losses as well as decreased early postnatal survival and birth weight at considerably

higher systemic exposures than those reached during clinical use. However, these animal

experimental results do not seem to be relevant in humans.




List of excipients

Lactose monohydrate (contains milk proteins)



Not applicable.


Shelf life

2 years.


Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.


Nature and contents of container

A red/white coloured plastic inhaler containing an OPA/Al/PVC-Al blister with 60 pre-metered doses

of inhalation powder.

Pack sizes: 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 inhaler(s), each with 60 doses.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.


Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local




[To be completed nationally]



[To be completed nationally]



Date of first authorisation: {DD month YYYY}

[To be completed nationally]




[To be completed nationally]

Liknande Produkter

Sök varningar relaterade till denna produkt

Visa dokumenthistorik

Dela den här informationen