DuoTrav

Unjoni Ewropea - Ingliż - EMA (European Medicines Agency)

Ixtrih issa

Ingredjent attiv:
travoprost, timolol
Disponibbli minn:
Novartis Europharm Limited
Kodiċi ATC:
S01ED51
INN (Isem Internazzjonali):
travoprost / timolol
Grupp terapewtiku:
Ophthalmologicals,
Żona terapewtika:
Glaucoma, Open-Angle, Ocular Hypertension
Indikazzjonijiet terapewtiċi:
Decrease of intraocular pressure (IOP) in adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are insufficiently responsive to topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogues.,
Sommarju tal-prodott:
Revision: 16
L-istatus ta 'awtorizzazzjoni:
Authorised
Numru ta 'awtorizzazzjoni:
EMEA/H/C/000665
Data ta 'l-awtorizzazzjoni:
2006-04-23
Kodiċi EMEA:
EMEA/H/C/000665

Dokumenti

B. PACKAGE LEAFLET

Package leaflet: Information for the user

DuoTrav 40 micrograms/mL + 5 mg/mL eye drops, solution

travoprost/timolol

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start using this medicine because it contains

important information for you.

-

Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.

-

If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

-

This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them,

even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.

-

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side

effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4.

What is in this leaflet

What DuoTrav is and what it is used for

What you need to know before you use DuoTrav

How to use DuoTrav

Possible side effects

How to store DuoTrav

Contents of the pack and other information

1.

What DuoTrav is and what it is used for

DuoTrav eye drop solution is a combination of two active substances (travoprost and timolol).

Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue which works by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from

the eye, which lowers its pressure. Timolol is a beta blocker which works by reducing the production

of fluid within the eye. The two substances work together to reduce pressure within the eye.

DuoTrav eye drops are used to treat high pressure in the eye in adults, including the elderly. This

pressure can lead to an illness called glaucoma.

2.

What you need to know before you use DuoTrav

Do not use DuoTrav

if you are allergic to travoprost, prostaglandins, timolol, beta blockers or any of the other

ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6).

if you have now or have had in the past respiratory problems such as asthma, severe chronic

obstructive bronchitis (severe lung disease which may cause wheeziness, difficulty in breathing

and/or long-standing cough), or other types of breathing problems.

if you have severe hay fever.

if you have a slow heartbeat, heart failure or a disorder of heart rhythm (irregular heartbeat).

if the surface of your eye is cloudy.

Ask your doctor for advice if any of these applies to you.

Warning and precautions

Talk to your doctor before using DuoTrav if you have now or have had in the past

coronary heart disease (symptoms can include chest pain or tightness, breathlessness or

choking), heart failure, low blood pressure.

disturbances of heart rate such as slow heartbeat.

breathing problems, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

poor blood circulation disease (such as Raynaud’s disease or Raynaud’s syndrome).

diabetes (as timolol may mask signs and symptoms of low blood sugar).

overactivity of the thyroid gland (as timolol may mask signs and symptoms of thyroid disease).

myasthenia gravis (chronic neuromuscular weakness).

cataract surgery.

eye inflammation.

If you need to have any type of surgery, tell your doctor that you are using DuoTrav as timolol may

change the effects of some medicines used during anaesthesia.

If you get any severe allergic reaction (skin rash, redness and itching of the eye) while using

DuoTrav, whatever the cause, adrenaline treatment may not be as effective. It is therefore important to

tell the doctor that you are using DuoTrav when you are to receive any other treatment.

DuoTrav may change the colour of your iris (the coloured part of your eye). This change may be

permanent.

DuoTrav may increase the length, thickness, colour and/or number of your eyelashes and may cause

unusual hair growth on your eyelids.

Travoprost may be absorbed through the skin and therefore should not be used by women who are

pregnant or are attempting to become pregnant. If any of the medicine comes into contact with the skin

then it should be washed off straight away.

Children

DuoTrav is not to be used by children and adolescents under 18 years of age.

Other medicines and DuoTrav

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other

medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription.

DuoTrav can affect or be affected by other medicines you are using, including other eye drops for the

treatment of glaucoma. Tell your doctor if you are using or intend to use medicines to lower blood

pressure, heart medicines including quinidine (used to treat heart conditions and some types of

malaria), medicines to treat diabetes or the antidepressants fluoxetine or paroxetine.

Pregnancy, breast-feeding and fertility

If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask

your doctor for advice before taking this medicine.

Do not use DuoTrav if you are pregnant unless your doctor considers it necessary. If you could get

pregnant you must use adequate contraception whilst you use the medicine.

Do not use DuoTrav if you are breast-feeding. DuoTrav may get into your milk.

Driving and using machines

You may find that your vision is blurred for a time just after you use DuoTrav. Do not drive or use

machines until this has worn off.

DuoTrav contains hydrogenated castor oil and propylene glycol which may cause skin reactions

and irritation.

3.

How to use DuoTrav

Always use this medicine exactly as your doctor has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if

you are not sure.

The recommended dose is one drop in the affected eye or eyes once a day in the morning or in the

evening. Use at the same time each day.

Only use DuoTrav in both eyes if your doctor told you to do so.

Only use DuoTrav as eye drops.

Immediately before using a bottle for the first time, tear open the overwrap (picture 1), remove

the bottle and write the date of opening on the label in the space provided.

Make sure you have a mirror available.

Wash your hands.

Twist off the bottle cap.

Hold the bottle, pointing down, between your thumb and fingers.

Tilt your head back. Pull your lower eyelid down with a clean finger until there is a “pocket”

between the eyelid and your eye. The drop will go in here (picture 2).

Bring the bottle dropper close to the eye. Use the mirror if it helps.

Do not touch your eye or eyelid, the surrounding areas or other surfaces with the dropper. It

could infect the drops.

Gently squeeze the bottle to release one drop of DuoTrav at a time (picture 3). If a drop misses

your eye, try again.

After using DuoTrav, press your finger into the corner of your eye by your nose for 2 minutes

(picture 4). This helps to stop DuoTrav getting into the rest of the body.

If you have to use DuoTrav in both eyes, repeat the above steps for your other eye.

Close the bottle cap firmly immediately after use.

Only use one bottle at a time. Do not open the overwrap until you need to use the bottle.

Use DuoTrav for as long as your doctor has told you to.

If you use more DuoTrav than you should

If you use more DuoTrav than you should, rinse it all out with warm water. Do not put in any more

drops until it is time for your next regular dose.

If you forget to use DuoTrav

If you forget to use DuoTrav, continue with the next dose as planned. Do not use a double dose to

make up for the forgotten dose. The dose should not exceed one drop daily in the affected eye(s).

If you stop using DuoTrav

If you stop using DuoTrav without speaking to your doctor the pressure in your eye will not be

controlled, which could lead to loss of sight.

If you are using other eye drops in addition to DuoTrav, leave at least 5 minutes between applying

DuoTrav and the other drops.

If you wear soft contact lenses do not use the drops with your lenses in. After using the drops wait

15 minutes before putting your lenses back in.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

4.

Possible side effects

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects although not everybody gets them.

You can usually carry on using the drops, unless the effects are serious. If you are worried, talk to a

doctor or pharmacist. Do not stop using DuoTrav without speaking to your doctor.

Very common side effects (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)

Effects in the eye

Eye redness.

Common side effects (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)

Effects in the eye

Eye surface inflammation with surface damage, eye pain, blurred vision, abnormal vision, dry eye,

itchy eye, eye discomfort, signs and symptoms of eye irritation (e.g. burning, stinging).

Uncommon side effects (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)

Effects in the eye

Inflammation of the eye surface, inflammation of the eyelid, swollen conjunctiva, increased growth of

eyelashes, iris inflammation, eye inflammation, sensitivity to light, reduced vision, tired eyes, eye

allergy, eye swelling, increased tear production, eyelid redness, eyelid colour change, skin darkening

(around the eye).

General side effects

Allergic reaction to active substance, dizziness, headache, increased or decreased blood pressure,

shortness of breath, excessive hair growth, drip at back of throat, skin inflammation and itching,

decreased heart rate.

Rare side effects (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people)

Effects in the eye

Thinning of the eye surface, inflammation of the eyelid glands, broken blood vessel in the eye, eyelid

crusting, abnormally positioned eyelashes, abnormal growth of lashes.

General side effects

Nervousness, irregular heart rate, loss of hair, voice disorders, difficulty breathing, cough, throat

irritation, hives, abnormal liver blood tests, skin discolouration, thirst, tiredness, discomfort inside of

nose, coloured urine, pain in hands and feet.

Not known (frequency cannot be estimated from the available data)

Effects in the eye

Droopy eyelid (making the eye stay half closed), sunken eyes (eyes appear more inset), changes in the

colour of the iris (coloured part of the eye).

General side effects

Rash, heart failure, chest pain, stroke, fainting, depression, asthma, increased heart rate, numbness or

tingling sensation, palpitations, swelling in the lower limbs, bad taste.

Additionally:

DuoTrav is a combination of two active substances, travoprost and timolol. Like other medicines

administered to the eyes, travoprost and timolol (a beta blocker) are absorbed into the blood. This may

cause side effects similar to those seen when beta-blocking medicines that are administered by mouth

or by injection. The incidence of side effects after administration to the eyes is lower than after

administration by mouth or by injection.

The side effects listed below include reactions seen with the class of beta blockers used for treating

eye conditions or reactions seen with travoprost alone:

Effects in the eye

Inflammation of the eyelid, inflammation in the cornea, detachment of the layer below the retina that

contains blood vessels following filtration surgery which may cause visual disturbances, decreased

corneal sensitivity, corneal erosion (damage to the front layer of the eyeball), double vision, eye

discharge,

swelling around the eye, eyelid itching, outward turning of eyelid with redness, irritation

and excessive tears, blurred vision (sign of clouding of the eye lens), swelling of a section of the eye

(uvea), eczema of the eyelids, halo vision, decreased eye sensation, pigmentation inside the eye,

dilatated pupils, change in eyelash colour, change in the texture of the eyelashes, abnormal field of

vision.

General side effects

Ear and labyrinth disorders: dizziness with spinning sensation, ringing in the ears.

Heart and circulation: slow heart rate, palpitations, oedema (fluid build-up), changes in heartbeat

rhythm or speed, congestive heart failure (heart disease with shortness of breath and swelling of the

feet and legs due to fluid build-up), a type of heart rhythm disorder, heart attack, low blood pressure,

Raynaud’s phenomenon, cold hands and feet, reduced blood supply to the brain.

Respiratory: constriction of the airways in the lungs (predominantly in patients with pre-existing

disease), runny or stuffy nose, sneezing (due to allergy), difficulty breathing, nose bleed, nasal

dryness.

Nervous system and general disorders: difficulty sleeping (insomnia), nightmares, memory loss, loss

of strength and energy, anxiety (excessive emotional distress).

Gastrointestinal: taste disturbances, nausea, indigestion, diarrhoea, dry mouth, abdominal pain,

vomiting and constipation.

Allergy: increased allergic symptoms, generalised allergic reactions including swelling beneath the

skin that can occur in areas such as the face and limbs and can obstruct the airway. which may cause

difficulty swallowing or breathing, localised and generalised rash, itchiness, severe sudden

life-threatening allergic reaction.

Skin: skin rash with white silvery coloured appearance (psoriasiform rash) or worsening of psoriasis,

peeling skin, abnormal hair texture, inflammation of the skin with itchy rash and redness, hair colour

change, loss of eyelashes, itching, abnormal hair growth, skin redness.

Muscular: increases in signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (muscle disorder), unusual

sensations like pins and needles, muscle weakness/tiredness, muscle pain not caused by exercise, joint

pain.

Renal and urinary disorders: difficulty and pain when passing urine, involuntary leakage of urine,

Reproduction: sexual dysfunction, decreased libido.

Metabolism: low blood sugar levels, increase in prostate cancer marker.

Reporting of side effects

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects

not listed in this leaflet. You can also report side effects directly via the national reporting system

listed in Appendix V. By reporting side effects you can help provide more information on the safety of

this medicine.

5.

How to store DuoTrav

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.

Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the bottle label and carton after EXP.

The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.

Do not store above 30°C.

You must throw away the bottle 4 weeks after you first opened it to prevent the risk of infections.

Each time you start a new bottle write down the date you open it in the spaces on the bottle label and

carton.

Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to

throw away medicines you longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.

6.

Contents of the pack and other information

What DuoTrav contains

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The active substances are travoprost and timolol. Each mL of solution contains 40 micrograms

of travoprost and 5 mg of timolol (as timolol maleate).

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The other ingredients are Polyquaternium-1, mannitol (E421), propylene glycol (E1520),

polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40, boric acid, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or

hydrochloric acid (to adjust pH), purified water.

Tiny amounts of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid are added to keep acidity levels (pH

levels) normal.

What DuoTrav looks like and contents of the pack

DuoTrav is a liquid (a clear, colourless solution) supplied in a 2.5 mL plastic bottle with a screw cap.

Each bottle is packed in an overwrap.

Packs of 1, 3 or 6 bottles.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

Marketing Authorisation Holder

Vista Building

Elm Park, Merrion Road

Dublin 4

Ireland

Manufacturer

S.A. Alcon-Couvreur N.V.

Rijksweg 14

B-2870 Puurs

Belgium

Alcon Cusí, S.A.

Camil Fabra 58

08320 El Masnou

Spain

For any information about this medicine, please contact the local representative of the Marketing

Authorisation Holder.

België/Belgique/Belgien

Novartis Pharma N.V.

Tél/Tel: +32 2 246 16 11

Lietuva

SIA “Novartis Baltics” Lietuvos filialas

Tel: +370 5 269 16 50

България

Novartis Bulgaria EOOD

Тел.: +359 2 489 98 28

Luxembourg/Luxemburg

Novartis Pharma N.V.

Tél/Tel: +32 2 246 16 11

Česká republika

Novartis s.r.o.

Tel: +420 225 775 111

Magyarország

Novartis Hungária Kft.

Tel.: +36 1 457 65 00

Danmark

Novartis Healthcare A/S

Tlf: +45 39 16 84 00

Malta

Novartis Pharma Services Inc.

Tel: +356 2122 2872

Deutschland

Novartis Pharma GmbH

Tel: +49 911 273 0

Nederland

Novartis Pharma B.V.

Tel: +31 26 37 82 111

Eesti

SIA Novartis Baltics Eesti filiaal

Tel: +372 66 30 810

Norge

Novartis Norge AS

Tlf: +47 23 05 20 00

Ελλάδα

Novartis (Hellas) A.E.B.E.

Τηλ: +30 210 281 17 12

Österreich

Novartis Pharma GmbH

Tel: +43 1 86 6570

España

Novartis Farmacéutica, S.A.

Tel: +34 93 306 42 00

Polska

Novartis Poland Sp. z o.o.

Tel.: +48 22 375 4888

France

Novartis Pharma S.A.S.

Tél: +33 1 55 47 66 00

Portugal

Novartis Farma - Produtos Farmacêuticos, S.A.

Tel: +351 21 000 8600

Hrvatska

Novartis Hrvatska d.o.o.

Tel. +385 1 6274 220

România

Novartis Pharma Services Romania SRL

Tel: +40 21 31299 01

Ireland

Novartis Ireland Limited

Tel: +353 1 260 12 55

Slovenija

Novartis Pharma Services Inc.

Tel: +386 1 300 75 50

Ísland

Vistor hf.

Sími: +354 535 7000

Slovenská republika

Novartis Slovakia s.r.o.

Tel: + 421 2 5542 5439

Italia

Novartis Farma S.p.A.

Tel: +39 02 96 54 1

Suomi/Finland

Novartis Finland Oy

Puh/Tel: +358 (0)10 6133 200

Κύπρος

Novartis Pharma Services Inc.

Τηλ: +357 22 690 690

Sverige

Novartis Sverige AB

Tel: +46 8 732 32 00

Latvija

SIA “Novartis Baltics”

Tel: +371 67 887 070

United Kingdom

Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd.

Tel: +44 1276 698370

This leaflet was last revised in

Other sources of information

Detailed information on this medicine is available on the European Medicines Agency website:

http://www.ema.europa.eu

ANNEX I

SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

1.

NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

DuoTrav 40 micrograms/mL + 5 mg/mL eye drops, solution

2.

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each mL of solution contains 40 micrograms of travoprost and 5 mg of timolol (as timolol maleate).

Excipient(s) with known effect

Each mL of solution contains polyquaternium-1 (POLYQUAD) 10 microgram, propylene glycol 5 mg

and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 1 mg (see section 4.4).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3.

PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Eye drops, solution (eye drops).

Clear, colourless solution.

4.

CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1

Therapeutic indications

DuoTrav is indicated in adults for the decrease of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with

open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are insufficiently responsive to topical beta blockers

or prostaglandin analogues (see section 5.1).

4.2

Posology and method of administration

Posology

Use in adults, including the elderly

The dose is one drop of DuoTrav in the conjunctival sac of the affected eye(s) once daily, in the

morning or evening. It should be administered at the same time each day.

If a dose is missed, treatment should be continued with the next dose as planned. The dose should not

exceed one drop in the affected eye(s) daily.

Special populations

Hepatic and renal impairment

No studies have been conducted with DuoTrav or with timolol 5 mg/mL eye drops in patients with

hepatic or renal impairment.

Travoprost has been studied in patients with mild to severe hepatic impairment and in patients with

mild to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance as low as 14 mL/min). No dose adjustment was

necessary in these patients.

Patients with hepatic or renal impairment are unlikely to require dose adjustment with DuoTrav (see

section 5.2).

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of DuoTrav in children and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not

been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

For ocular use.

The patient should remove the protective overwrap immediately prior to initial use. To prevent

contamination of the dropper tip and solution, care must be taken not to touch the eyelids, surrounding

areas or other surfaces with the dropper tip of the bottle.

When nasolacrimal occlusion is used or the eyelids are closed for 2 minutes, systemic absorption is

reduced. This may result in a decrease in systemic side effects and an increase in local activity (see

section 4.4).

If more than one topical ophthalmic medicinal product is being used, the medicinal products must be

administered at least 5 minutes apart (see section 4.5).

When substituting another ophthalmic antiglaucoma medicinal product with DuoTrav, the other

medicinal product should be discontinued and DuoTrav should be started the following day.

Patients must be instructed to remove soft contact lenses prior to application of DuoTrav and wait

15 minutes after instillation of the dose before reinsertion (see section 4.4).

4.3

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substances, or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

Hypersensitivity to other beta blockers.

Reactive airway disease including bronchial asthma, or a history of bronchial asthma, severe chronic

obstructive pulmonary disease.

Sinus bradycardia, sick sinus syndrome, including sino-atrial block, second- or third-degree

atrioventricular block not controlled with pacemaker. Overt cardiac failure, cardiogenic shock. Severe

allergic rhinitis and corneal dystrophies.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

Systemic effects

Like other topically applied ophthalmic agents, travoprost and timolol are absorbed systemically. Due

to the beta-adrenergic component, timolol, the same types of cardiovascular, pulmonary and other

adverse reactions seen with systemic beta-adrenergic blocking medicinal products may occur. The

incidence of systemic ADRs after topical ophthalmic administration is lower than for systemic

administration. For information on how to reduce systemic absorption, see section 4.2.

Cardiac disorders

In patients with cardiovascular diseases (e.g. coronary heart disease, Prinzmetal’s angina and cardiac

failure) and hypotension, therapy with beta blockers should be critically assessed and therapy with

other active substances should be considered. Patients with cardiovascular diseases should be watched

for signs of deterioration of these diseases and of adverse reactions.

Due to their negative effect on conduction time, beta blockers should only be given with caution to

patients with first-degree heart block.

Vascular disorders

Patients with severe peripheral circulatory disturbance/disorders (i.e. severe forms of Raynaud’s

disease or Raynaud’s syndrome) should be treated with caution.

Respiratory disorders

Respiratory reactions, including death due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma, have been

reported following administration of some ophthalmic beta blockers.

DuoTrav should be used with caution in patients with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary

disease (COPD) and only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk.

Hypoglycaemia/diabetes

Beta blockers should be administered with caution in patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycaemia

or in patients with labile diabetes, as beta blockers may mask the signs and symptoms of acute

hypoglycaemia.

Muscle weakness

Beta-adrenergic blocking medicinal products have been reported to potentiate muscle weakness

consistent with certain myasthenic symptoms (e.g. diplopia, ptosis and generalised weakness).

Corneal diseases

Ophthalmic beta blockers may induce dryness of eyes. Patients with corneal diseases should be treated

with caution.

Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment has been reported with administration of aqueous suppressant therapy (e.g.

timolol, acetazolamide) after filtration procedures.

Other beta-blocking agents

The effect on intra-ocular pressure or the known effects of systemic beta blockade may be potentiated

when timolol is given to patients already receiving a systemic beta-blocking medicinal product. The

response of these patients should be closely observed. The use of two topical beta-adrenergic blocking

agents is not recommended (see section 4.5).

Surgical anaesthesia

Beta-blocking ophthalmological preparations may block systemic beta-agonist effects, e.g. of

adrenaline. The anaesthetist should be informed when the patient is receiving timolol.

Hyperthyroidism

Beta blockers may mask the signs of hyperthyroidism.

Skin contact

Prostaglandins and prostaglandin analogues are biologically active substances that may be absorbed

through the skin. Women who are pregnant or attempting to become pregnant should exercise

appropriate precautions to avoid direct exposure to the contents of the bottle. In the unlikely event of

coming in contact with a substantial portion of the contents of the bottle, thoroughly cleanse the

exposed area immediately.

Anaphylactic reactions

While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of atopy or a history of severe anaphylactic reaction

to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge with such allergens and

unresponsive to the usual dose of adrenaline used to treat anaphylactic reactions.

Concomitant therapy

Timolol may interact with other medicinal products (see section 4.5).

The use of two local prostaglandins is not recommended.

Ocular effects

Travoprost may gradually change the eye colour by increasing the number of melanosomes (pigment

granules) in melanocytes. Before treatment is instituted, patients must be informed of the possibility of

a permanent change in eye colour. Unilateral treatment can result in permanent heterochromia. The

long-term effects on the melanocytes and any consequences thereof are currently unknown. The

change in iris colour occurs slowly and may not be noticeable for months to years. The change in eye

colour has predominantly been seen in patients with mixed coloured irides, i.e. blue-brown,

grey-brown, yellow-brown and green-brown; however, it has also been observed in patients with

brown eyes. Typically, the brown pigmentation around the pupil spreads concentrically towards the

periphery in affected eyes, but the entire iris or parts of it may become more brownish. After

discontinuation of therapy, no further increase in brown iris pigment has been observed.

In controlled clinical trials, periorbital and/or eyelid skin darkening in association with the use of

travoprost has been reported.

Periorbital and lid changes, including deepening of the eyelid sulcus, have been observed with

prostaglandin analogues.

Travoprost may gradually change eyelashes in the treated eye(s); these changes were observed in

about half of the patients in clinical trials and include: increased length, thickness, pigmentation,

and/or number of lashes. The mechanism of eyelash changes and their long-term consequences are

currently unknown.

Travoprost has been shown to cause slight enlargement of the palpebral fissure in studies in the

monkey. However, this effect was not observed during the clinical trials and is considered to be

species specific.

There is no experience of DuoTrav in inflammatory ocular conditions, nor in neovascular,

angle-closure, narrow-angle or congenital glaucoma, and only limited experience in thyroid eye

disease, in open-angle glaucoma of pseudophakic patients and in pigmentary or pseudoexfoliative

glaucoma.

Macular oedema has been reported during treatment with prostaglandin F

analogues. Caution is

recommended when using DuoTrav in aphakic patients, pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior

lens capsule or anterior chamber lenses, or in patients with known risk factors for cystoid macular

oedema.

In patients with known predisposing risk factors for iritis/uveitis, and in patients with active

intraocular inflammation, DuoTrav can be used with caution.

Excipients

DuoTrav contains propylene glycol which may cause skin irritation.

DuoTrav contains polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 which may cause skin reactions.

Patients must be instructed to remove contact lenses prior to application of DuoTrav and wait

15 minutes after instillation of the dose before reinsertion (see section 4.2).

4.5

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No specific drug interaction studies have been performed with travoprost or timolol.

There is a potential for additive effects resulting in hypotension and/or marked bradycardia when

ophthalmic beta-blocker solution is administered concomitantly with oral calcium channel blockers,

beta-adrenergic blocking agents, antiarrhythmics (including amiodarone), digitalis glycosides,

parasympathomimetics or guanethidine.

The hypertensive reaction to sudden withdrawal of clonidine can be potentiated when taking beta

blockers.

Potentiated systemic beta blockade (e.g. decreased heart rate, depression) has been reported during

combined treatment with CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g. quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine) and timolol.

Mydriasis resulting from concomitant use of ophthalmic beta blockers and adrenaline (epinephrine)

has been reported occasionally.

Beta blockers may increase the hypoglycaemic effect of antidiabetic medicinal products. Beta blockers

can mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4).

4.6

Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Women of childbearing potential/contraception

DuoTrav must not be used in women of child-bearing age/potential unless adequate contraceptive

measures are in place (see section 5.3).

Pregnancy

Travoprost has harmful pharmacological effects on pregnancy and/or the foetus/newborn child.

There are no or limited amount of data from the use of DuoTrav or the individual components in

pregnant women. Timolol should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.

Epidemiological studies have not revealed malformative effects but show a risk for intrauterine growth

retardation when beta blockers are administered by the oral route. In addition, signs and symptoms of

beta blockade (e.g. bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia) have been

observed in the neonate when beta blockers have been administered until delivery. If DuoTrav is

administered until delivery, the neonate should be carefully monitored during the first days of life.

DuoTrav should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary. For information on how to

reduce systemic absorption, see section 4.2.

Breast-feeding

It is unknown whether travoprost from eye drops is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies

have shown excretion of travoprost and metabolites in breast milk. Timolol is excreted in breast milk

and has the potential to cause serious adverse reactions in the breast-fed infant. However, at

therapeutic doses of timolol in eye drops it is not likely that sufficient amounts would be present in

breast milk to produce clinical symptoms of beta blockade in the infant. For information on how to

reduce systemic absorption, see section 4.2.

The use of DuoTrav by breast-feeding women is not recommended.

Fertility

There are no data on the effects of DuoTrav on human fertility. Animal studies showed no effect of

travoprost on fertility at doses up to 75 times the maximum recommended human ocular dose, whereas

no relevant effect of timolol was noted at this dose level.

4.7

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

DuoTrav has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

As with any eye drops, temporary blurred vision or other visual disturbances may occur. If blurred

vision occurs at instillation, the patient must wait until the vision clears before driving or using

machines.

4.8

Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

In clinical studies involving 2,170 patients treated with DuoTrav the most frequently reported

treatment-related adverse reaction was ocular hyperaemia (12.0%).

Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The adverse reactions listed in the table below were observed in clinical studies or with post-marketing

experience. They are ranked according to system organ class and classified according to the following

convention: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare

(≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), or not known (cannot be estimated from the available

data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in decreasing order of

seriousness.

System organ class

Frequency

Adverse reactions

Immune system disorders

Uncommon

Hypersensitivity

Psychiatric disorders

Rare

Nervousness

Not known

Depression

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon

Dizziness, headache

Not known

Cerebrovascular accident, syncope, paraesthesia

Eye disorders

Very common

Ocular hyperaemia

Common

Punctate keratitis, eye pain, visual disturbance,

vision blurred, dry eye, eye pruritus, ocular

discomfort, eye irritation

Uncommon

Keratitis, iritis, conjunctivitis, anterior chamber

inflammation, blepharitis, photophobia, visual acuity

reduced, asthenopia, eye swelling, lacrimation

increased, erythema of eyelid, growth of eyelashes,

eye allergy, conjunctival oedema, eyelid oedema

Rare

orneal erosion, meibomianitis, conjunctival

haemorrhage, eyelid margin crusting, trichiasis,

distichiasis

Not known

Macular oedema, eyelid ptosis, lid sulcus deepened,

iris hyperpigmentation, corneal disorder

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon

Bradycardia

Rare

Arrhythmia, heart rate irregular

Not known

Cardiac failure, tachycardia, chest pain, palpitations

Vascular disorders

Uncommon

Hypertension, hypotension

Not known

Oedema peripheral

Respiratory, thoracic and

mediastinal disorders

Uncommon

Dyspnoea, postnasal drip

Rare

Dysphonia, bronchospasm, cough, throat irritation,

oropharyngeal pain, nasal discomfort

Not known

Asthma

Gastrointestinal disorders

Not known

Dysgeusia

Hepatobiliary disorders

Rare

Alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate

aminotransferase increased

Skin and subcutaneous tissue

disorders

Uncommon

Dermatitis contact, hypertrichosis, skin

hyperpigmentation (periocular)

Rare

Urticaria, skin discolouration, alopecia

Not known

Rash

Musculoskeletal and

connective tissue disorders

Rare

Pain in extremity

Renal and urinary disorders

Rare

Chromaturia

General disorders and

administration site conditions

Rare

Thirst, fatigue

Additional adverse reactions that have been seen with one of the active substances and may potentially

occur with DuoTrav:

Travoprost

System organ class

MedDRA preferred term

Immune system disorders

Seasonal allergy

Psychiatric disorders

Anxiety, insomnia

Eye disorders

Uveitis, conjunctival follicles, eye discharge,

periorbital oedema, eyelids pruritus, ectropion,

cataract, iridocyclitis, ophthalmic herpes simplex,

eye inflammation, photopsia, eczema eyelids,

halo vision, hypoaesthesia eye, anterior chamber

pigmentation, mydriasis, eyelash

hyperpigmentation, eyelash thickening, visual

field defect

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo, tinnitus

Vascular disorders

Blood pressure diastolic decreased, blood

pressure systolic increased

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Asthma aggravated, rhinitis allergic, epistaxis,

respiratory disorder, nasal congestion, nasal

dryness

Gastrointestinal disorders

Peptic ulcer reactivated, gastrointestinal disorder,

diarrhoea, constipation, dry mouth, abdominal

pain, nausea, vomiting

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Skin exfoliation, hair texture abnormal, dermatitis

allergic, hair colour changes, madarosis, pruritus,

hair growth abnormal, erythema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Musculoskeletal pain, arthralgia

Renal and urinary disorders

Dysuria, urinary incontinence

General disorders and administration site

conditions

Asthenia

Investigations

Prostatic specific antigen increased

Timolol

Like other topically applied ophthalmic medicinal products, timolol is absorbed into the systemic

circulation. This may cause undesirable effects similar to those seen with systemic beta-blocking

agents. Additional listed adverse reactions include reactions seen within the class of ophthalmic beta

blockers. The incidence of systemic ADRs after topical ophthalmic administration is lower than for

systemic administration. For information on how to reduce systemic absorption, see section 4.2.

System organ class

MedDRA preferred term

Immune system disorders

Systemic allergic reactions including

angioedema, urticaria, localised and generalised

rash, pruritus, anaphylaxis

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hypoglycaemia

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia, nightmares, memory loss

Nervous system disorders

Cerebral ischaemia, increases in signs and

symptoms of myasthenia gravis

Eye disorders

Signs and symptoms of ocular irritation (e.g.

burning, stinging, itching, tearing, redness),

choroidal detachment following filtration surgery

(see section 4.4), decreased corneal sensitivity,

diplopia

Cardiac disorders

Oedema, congestive heart failure, atrioventricular

block, cardiac arrest

Vascular disorders

Raynaud’s phenomenon, cold hands and feet

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dry mouth,

abdominal pain, vomiting

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Psoriasiform rash or exacerbation of psoriasis

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Myalgia

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Sexual dysfunction, decreased libido

General disorders and administration site

conditions

Asthenia

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It

allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare

professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system

listed in Appendix V.

4.9

Overdose

A topical overdose with DuoTrav is not likely to occur or to be associated with toxicity.

In case of accidental ingestion, symptoms of overdose from systemic beta blockade may include

bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm and heart failure.

If overdose with DuoTrav occurs, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Timolol does not

dialyse readily.

5.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1

Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Ophthalmologicals; Antiglaucoma preparations and miotics, ATC code:

S01ED51.

Mechanism of action

DuoTrav contains two active substances: travoprost and timolol maleate. These two components lower

intraocular pressure by complementary mechanisms of action and the combined effect results in

additional IOP reduction compared to either compound alone.

Travoprost, a prostaglandin F

analogue, is a full agonist which is highly selective and has a high

affinity for the prostaglandin FP receptor, and reduces the intraocular pressure by increasing the

outflow of aqueous humour via trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral pathways. Reduction of IOP in

man starts within approximately 2 hours after administration and maximum effect is reached after

12 hours. Significant lowering of intraocular pressure can be maintained for periods exceeding

24 hours with a single dose.

Timolol is a non-selective adrenergic blocking agent that has no intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct

myocardial depressant or membrane-stabilising activity. Tonography and fluorophotometry studies in

man suggest that its predominant action is related to reduced aqueous humour formation and a slight

increase in outflow facility.

Secondary pharmacology

Travoprost significantly increased optic nerve head blood flow in rabbits following 7 days of topical

ocular administration (1.4 micrograms once daily).

Pharmacodynamic effects

Clinical effects

In a twelve-month controlled clinical study in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular

hypertension and baseline mean IOP of 25 to 27 mmHg, the mean IOP-lowering effect of DuoTrav

dosed once daily in the morning was 8 to 10 mmHg. The non-inferiority of DuoTrav as compared to

latanoprost 50 micrograms/mL + timolol 5 mg/mL in the mean IOP reduction was demonstrated

across all time-points at all visits.

In a three-month controlled clinical study in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

and baseline mean IOP of 27 to 30 mmHg, the mean IOP-lowering effect of DuoTrav dosed once daily

in the morning was 9 to 12 mmHg, and was up to 2 mmHg greater than that of travoprost

40 micrograms/mL dosed once daily in the evening and 2 to 3 mmHg greater than that of timolol

5 mg/mL dosed twice daily. A statistically superior reduction in morning mean IOP (08:00, 24 hours

after the last dose of DuoTrav) was observed compared to travoprost at all visits throughout the study.

In two three-month controlled clinical studies in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular

hypertension and baseline mean IOP of 23 to 26 mmHg, the mean IOP-lowering effect of DuoTrav

dosed once daily in the morning was 7 to 9 mmHg. Mean IOP reductions were non-inferior, although

numerically lower, to those achieved by concomitant therapy with travoprost 40 micrograms/mL

dosed once daily in the evening and timolol 5 mg/mL dosed once daily in the morning.

In a 6-week controlled clinical study in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and

baseline mean IOP of 24 to 26 mmHg, the mean IOP-lowering effect of DuoTrav

(polyquaternium-1-preserved) dosed once daily in the morning was 8 mmHg and equivalent to that of

DuoTrav (benzalkonium chloride-preserved).

Inclusion criteria were common across the studies, with the exception of the IOP entry criteria and

response to previous IOP therapy. The clinical development of DuoTrav included both patients naive

and on therapy. Insufficient responsiveness to monotherapy was not an inclusion criterion.

Existing data suggest that evening dosing might have some advantages as regards mean IOP reduction.

Consideration should be given to patient convenience and their likely compliance when

recommending morning vs. evening dosing.

5.2

Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Travoprost and timolol are absorbed through the cornea. Travoprost is a prodrug that undergoes rapid

ester hydrolysis in the cornea to the active free acid. Following once-daily administration of DuoTrav

PQ in healthy subjects (N=22) for 5 days, travoprost free acid was not quantifiable in plasma samples

from the majority of subjects (94.4%) and generally was not detectable one hour after dosing. When

measurable (

0.01 ng/mL, the assay limit of quantitation), concentrations ranged from

0.01 to 0.03 ng/mL. The mean timolol steady-state C

was 1.34 ng/ml and T

was approximately

0.69 hours after once-daily administration of DuoTrav.

Distribution

Travoprost free acid can be measured in the aqueous humour during the first few hours in animals and

in human plasma only during the first hour after ocular administration of DuoTrav. Timolol can be

measured in human aqueous humour after ocular administration of timolol and in plasma for up to

12 hours after ocular administration of DuoTrav.

Biotransformation

Metabolism is the major route of elimination of both travoprost and the active free acid. The systemic

metabolic pathways parallel those of endogenous prostaglandin F

which are characterised by

reduction of the 13-14 double bond, oxidation of the 15-hydroxyl and

-oxidative cleavages of the

upper side chain.

Timolol is metabolised by two pathways. One route yields an ethanolamine side chain on the

thiadiazole ring and the other gives an ethanolic side chain on the morpholine nitrogen and a second

similar side chain with a carbonyl group adjacent to the nitrogen. The plasma t

of timolol is 4 hours

after ocular administration of DuoTrav.

Elimination

Travoprost free acid and its metabolites are mainly excreted by the kidneys. Less than 2% of an ocular

dose of travoprost was recovered in urine as free acid. Timolol and its metabolites are primarily

excreted by the kidneys. Approximately 20% of a timolol dose is excreted in the urine unchanged and

the remainder excreted in urine as metabolites.

5.3

Preclinical safety data

In monkeys, administration of DuoTrav twice daily was shown to induce increased palpebral fissure

and to increase iris pigmentation similar to that observed with ocular administration of prostanoids.

DuoTrav preserved with polyquaternium-1 induced minimal ocular surface toxicity, compared to eye

drops preserved with benzalkonium chloride, on cultured human corneal cells and following topical

ocular administration in rabbits.

Travoprost

Topical ocular administration of travoprost to monkeys at concentrations of up to 0.012% to the right

eye, twice daily for one year resulted in no systemic toxicity.

Reproduction toxicity studies with travoprost have been undertaken in rats, mice and rabbits using the

systemic route. Findings are related to FP receptor agonist activity in uterus with early

embryolethality, post-implantation loss and foetotoxicity. In pregnant rats, systemic administration of

travoprost at doses more than 200 times the clinical dose during the period of organogenesis resulted

in an increased incidence of malformations. Low levels of radioactivity were measured in amniotic

fluid and foetal tissues of pregnant rats administered

H-travoprost. Reproduction and development

studies have demonstrated a potent effect on foetal loss with a high rate observed in rats and mice

(180 pg/mL and 30 pg/mL plasma, respectively) at exposures 1.2 to 6 times the clinical exposure (up

to 25 pg/mL).

Timolol

Non-clinical data revealed no special hazard for humans with timolol based on conventional studies of

safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential. Reproduction

toxicity studies with timolol showed delayed foetal ossification in rats with no adverse effects on

postnatal development (7000 times the clinical dose) and increased foetal resorptions in rabbits

(14000 times the clinical dose).

6.

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

List of excipients

Polyquaternium-1

Mannitol (E421)

Propylene glycol (E1520)

Polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40)

Boric acid

Sodium chloride

Sodium hydroxide and/ or hydrochloric acid (for pH adjustment)

Purified water

6.2

Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3

Shelf life

2 years.

Discard 4 weeks after first opening.

6.4

Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 30°C.

6.5

Nature and contents of container

2.5 mL oval polypropylene (PP) or low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle and PP or LDPE

dispensing plug with PP screw cap, presented in an overwrap.

Pack sizes of 1, 3 or 6 bottles.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6

Special precautions for disposal

No special requirements.

7.

MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Novartis Europharm Limited

Vista Building

Elm Park, Merrion Road

Dublin 4

Ireland

8.

MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/06/338/001-6

9.

DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 24 April 2006

Date of last renewal: 07 October 2010

10.

DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines

Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu

7 Westferry Circus

Canary Wharf

London E14 4HB

United Kingdom

Telephone

+44 (0)20 7418 8400

Facsimile

+44 (0)20 7418 8416

E-mail

info@ema.europa.eu

Website

www.ema.europa.eu

An agency of the European Union

© European Medicines Agency, 2010. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

EMA/502114/2010

EMEA/H/C/000665

EPAR summary for the public

DuoTrav

travoprost / timolol

This document is a summary of the European public assessment report (EPAR) for DuoTrav. It explains

how the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) assessed the medicine to reach its

opinion in favour of granting a marketing authorisation and its recommendations on the conditions of

use for DuoTrav.

What is DuoTrav?

DuoTrav is a clear eye drop solution. It contains two active substances: travoprost (40 micrograms per

millilitre) and timolol (5 mg/ml).

What is DuoTrav used for?

DuoTrav is used to reduce the pressure inside the eye. It is used in adults with ‘open angle glaucoma’

or ‘ocular hypertension’ who do not respond sufficiently to eye drops containing beta-blockers or

prostaglandin analogues (other medicines used for these conditions).

Ocular hypertension is when the pressure in the eye is higher than normal. In open angle glaucoma

the high pressure is caused by fluid being unable to drain out of the eye.

DuoTrav can only be obtained with a prescription.

How is DuoTrav used?

The dose of DuoTrav is one drop in the affected eye(s) once a day, in the morning or evening, at the

same time every day. If more than one type of eye drop is being used, each one should be given at

least five minutes apart.

How does DuoTrav work?

When the pressure inside the eye rises, it causes damage to the retina (the light sensitive membrane

at the back of the eye) and to the optic nerve that sends signals from the eye to the brain. This can

result in serious vision loss and even blindness. By lowering the pressure, DuoTrav reduces the risk of

damaging these structures.

DuoTrav contains two active substances, travoprost and timolol, which lower the pressure in the eye in

different ways. Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue (a man-made copy of the natural substance

prostaglandin) that works by increasing the drainage of fluid out of the eye. Travoprost on its own has

been authorised in the European Union as Travatan since 2001. Timolol is a beta-blocker that works by

reducing the production of fluid within the eye. Timolol has been used to treat glaucoma since the

1970’s. The combination of the two active substances has an additive effect, reducing the pressure

inside the eye more than either medicine alone.

How has DuoTrav been studied?

DuoTrav has been studied in five main studies involving a total of 1,482 patients (aged 18 to 91) with

open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The studies lasted between six weeks and 12 months.

One study compared DuoTrav taken in the morning with DuoTrav taken in the evening. Three studies

compared DuoTrav with travoprost and timolol either given on their own, or together but as separate

eye drops. The fifth was a 12-month study that compared DuoTrav with eye drops containing a

combination of latanoprost (another prostaglandin analogue) and timolol.

In all of the studies, the main measure of effectiveness was the change in pressure inside the eye

measured in ‘millimetres of mercury’ (mmHg). In a patient with glaucoma, the eye pressure is usually

higher than 21 mmHg.

What benefit has DuoTrav shown during the studies?

DuoTrav reduced the pressure inside the eye by about a third in all of the studies (the average

reduction was about 8-10 mmHg).

DuoTrav taken in the evening was as effective as DuoTrav taken in the morning. DuoTrav was more

effective at reducing the pressure inside the eye than timolol on its own, or travoprost on its own. It

was as effective as the two medicines given as separate eye drops, and as effective as eye drops

containing both latanoprost and timolol.

What is the risk associated with DuoTrav?

The most common side effects with DuoTrav (seen in more than 1 patient in 10) are ocular hyperaemia

(increased blood supply to the eye, leading to redness) and eye irritation. For the full list of all side

effects reported with DuoTrav, see the package leaflet.

DuoTrav should not be used in people who may be hypersensitive (allergic) to travoprost, timolol (and

other beta-blockers), or any of the other ingredients. DuoTrav must not be used in people with asthma

or severe lung disease, or in people with some heart conditions. It must also not be used in people

with severe allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergy) and corneal

dystrophies (disorders that cause clouding of the cornea, the transparent layer in front of the eye).

DuoTrav contains benzalkonium chloride which is known to discolour soft contact lenses. Therefore,

care should be taken by people who wear soft contact lenses. DuoTrav may cause the iris of the eye to

change colour (darken) and the eyelashes to thicken, darken or lengthen.

DuoTrav

EMA/502114/2010

Page 2/3

DuoTrav

EMA/502114/2010

Page 3/3

Why has DuoTrav been approved?

The CHMP decided that DuoTrav’s benefits are greater than its risks and recommended that it be given

marketing authorisation.

Other information about DuoTrav:

The European Commission granted a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union, for

DuoTrav to Alcon Laboratories (UK) Limited on 24 April 2006. The marketing authorisation is valid for

an unlimited period.

The full EPAR for DuoTrav is available here

. For more information about treatment with DuoTrav, read

the package leaflet (also part of the EPAR) or contact your doctor or pharmacist.

This summary was last updated in 08-2010.

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