PDP-AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE CAPSULES

Canada - English - Health Canada

Buy It Now

Active ingredient:
AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE
Available from:
PENDOPHARM DIVISION OF PHARMASCIENCE INC
ATC code:
N04BB01
INN (International Name):
AMANTADINE
Dosage:
100MG
Pharmaceutical form:
CAPSULE
Composition:
AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE 100MG
Administration route:
ORAL
Units in package:
100
Prescription type:
Prescription
Therapeutic area:
ADAMANTANES
Product summary:
Active ingredient group (AIG) number: 0109101001; AHFS: 08:18.04
Authorization status:
APPROVED
Authorization number:
01990403
Authorization date:
2017-03-13

Documents in other languages

PRODUCT MONOGRAPH

Pr

pdp-AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE CAPSULES

(Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules,USP)

100 mg

Pr

pdp-AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE SYRUP

(Amantadine Hydrochloride Syrup,USP)

10 mg/mL

Antiparkinsonian Agent

PENDOPHARM, Division of Pharmascience Inc.

6111 Royalmount Ave., Suite 100

Montréal, Quebec

H4P 2T4

www.pendopharm.com

Date of Preparation:

June 27, 1992

Date of Revision:

March 13, 2017

Submission Control No: 202052

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 2 of 23

PRODUCT MONOGRAPH

Pr

pdp-AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE CAPSULES

(Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules,USP)

100 mg

Pr

pdp-AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE SYRUP

(Amantadine Hydrochloride Syrup,USP)

10 mg/mL

THERAPEUTIC CLASSIFICATION

Antiparkinsonian Agent

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The exact mechanism of action of

Amantadine

Hydrochloride

in the treatment

parkinsonism and

drug-induced

extrapyramidal reactions

is not known

appears to be

unrelated to its activity

the prophylaxis and symptomatic

treatment

of influenza A virus

infections.

Amantadine does not have any

appreciable

anticholinergic

activity; the

drug

probably exerts

a potentiating effect

catecholaminergic,

including

dopaminergic,

neurotransmission

CNS.

Amantadine is readily absorbed from the GI tract, is not metabolized and is excreted unchanged

in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.

Amantadine passes the blood brain barrier and appears in the saliva and nasal secretions.

Amantadine can be detected in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid at relatively low, but dose

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 3 of 23

related levels.

After oral administration of a single dose of 100 mg, maximum blood levels are reached, based

on the mean time of the peak urinary excretion rate, in approximately 4 hours; the peak excretion

rate is approximately 5 mg/hr; the mean half-life of the excretion rate approximates 15 hours.

Acidification of urine increases the rate of Amantadine excretion.

Compared with otherwise healthy adult individuals, the clearance of Amantadine is significantly

reduced in adult patients with renal insufficiency. The elimination half-life increases two to

three fold when creatinine clearance is less than 40ml/min/1.73m

and averages eight days in

patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis.

The renal clearance of Amantadine is reduced and plasma levels are increased in otherwise

healthy elderly patients age 65 years and older. The drug plasma levels in elderly patients

receiving 100 mg daily have been reported to approximate those determined in younger adults

taking 200 mg daily. Whether these changes are due to the normal decline in renal function or

other age related factors is not known.

A comparative bioavailability study was performed using normal human volunteers. The rate and

extent of absorption after a single 100 mg dose of Symmetrel and pms-Amantadine

Hydrochloride was measured and compared. The results can be summarized as follows:

(1)

(2)

Symetrel

Pdp-AMANTADINE

Hydrochloride

100 mg

Ratio

(2)/(1)

AUC (ng.h/mL)

5268.3

5315.2

1.01

(ng/mL)

258.1

252.2

0.98

3.75

1.01

14.06

13.27

0.94

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 4 of 23

INDICATIONS AND CLINICAL USE

PARKINSON'S SYNDROME AND DRUG INDUCED EXTRAPYRAMIDAL

REACTIONS:

Amantadine Hydrochloride is useful in the treatment of Parkinson's Syndrome and in the short

term management of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

Clinical Use:

In Parkinson's syndrome, Amantadine has been used alone and in combination with

anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs and with levodopa. The final therapeutic benefit seen with

Amantadine is significantly less than that seen with levodopa. The maximal therapeutic benefit

to be obtained with Amantadine is usually seen within 1 week. However, initial benefits may

diminish with continued dosing.

Amantadine is useful as an adjunct in patients who do not tolerate optimal doses of levodopa

alone or in combined therapy with a decarboxylase inhibitor.

In these patients, the addition of Amantadine may result in better control of Parkinson's

syndrome and may help to smooth out fluctuations in performance.

The comparative efficacy of Amantadine and anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs has not yet

been established. When Amantadine or anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs are each used with

marginal benefit, concomitant use may permit the same degree of control, often with a lower

dose of the anticholinergic medication.

Amantadine Hydrochloride is effective in decreasing the severity or eliminating drug-induced

extrapyramidal reactions including parkinsonism syndrome, akathisia and dystonia. It is not

effective in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 5 of 23

Anticholinergic-type side effects have been noted with Amantadine Hydrochloride when used in

patients with drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, however, the incidence of these side effects

is lower than that observed with anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs.

Although antiparkinsonian agents should not usually be used prophylactically during neuroleptic

administration, they may be given when needed to suppress extrapyramidal symptoms.

such, Amantadine Hydrochloride may be used in the management of extrapyramidal symptoms

which cannot be controlled by reduction of neuroleptic dosage, but should be discontinued as

soon as it is no longer required. Amantadine Hydrochloride should be discontinued after a period

of time to determine whether there is a recurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Amantadine Hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the

drug.

WARNINGS

Patients with a history of peripheral edema or congestive heart failure should be monitored

closely as there are patients who have developed congestive heart failure while being treated

with Amantadine.

Patients with a history of epilepsy or other seizures should be observed closely as Amantadine

Hydrochloride may cause increased seizure activity.

Pregnancy: Safe use of Amantadine Hydrochloride during pregnancy has not been established.

There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.

The drug should be used during pregnancy only when the potential benefits outweigh the

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 6 of 23

possible risks to the fetus (see Toxicology).

Lactation: Amantadine is excreted into breast milk. Amantadine Hydrochloride should not be be

administered to nursing mothers.

Pediatric Use: The safety and efficacy of Amantadine Hydrochloride in newborn infants and

infants below the age of 1 year have not been established.

PRECAUTIONS

General: Amantadine Hydrochloride should not be discontinued abruptly since a few patients

with Parkinson's disease have experienced a parkinsonian crisis, i.e., a sudden marked clinical

deterioration when this medication was suddenly stopped. The dose of anticholinergic drugs or

of Amantadine Hydrochloride should be reduced if atropine-like effects appear when these drugs

are used concurrently.

Use in Elderly: Because Amantadine hydrochloride is not metabolized and is mainly excreted in

the urine, it accumulates in the plasma and in the body when renal function declines. Thus, the

dose of Amantadine Hydrochloride should be reduced in patients with renal impairment and in

individuals who are 65 years of age or older.

Patients with Special Diseases and Conditions: The dose of Amantadine Hydrochloride may

need careful adjustment in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, or orthostatic

hypotension.

Care should be exercised when administering Amantadine Hydrochloride to patients with liver

disease, a history of recurrent eczematoid rash, or to patients with psychosis or severe

psychoneurosis not controlled by chemotherapeutic agents. Careful observation is required when

Amantadine Hydrochloride is administered concurrently with central nervous system stimulants.

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 7 of 23

Patients with Parkinson's syndrome improving on Amantadine Hydrochloride should resume

normal activities gradually and cautiously, consistent with other medical considerations, such as

the presence of osteoporosis or phlebothrombosis.

Occupational hazards: Patients receiving Amantadine Hydrochloride who note CNS effects or

blurring of vision should be cautioned against driving or working in situations where alertness is

important.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse affects have

occurred

in patients while receiving

Amantadine

Hydrochloride alone or in combination

with

anticholinergic

antiparkinsonian

drugs

and/or

levodopa.

The more important adverse reactions

orthostatic hypotensive

episodes,

congestive heart

failure,

depression,

psychosis and urinary retention;

rarely, convulsions, reversible

leukopenia

and neutropenia,

and abnormal

liver

functions

tests.

The adverse reactions reported

most

frequently

(5-10%) are: nausea,

dizziness

(lightheadedness), and

insomnia.

Less frequently

(1-5%) reported

adverse

reactions are: depression, anxiety

irritability,

hallucinations,

confusion,

anorexia, dry mouth, constipation,

ataxia,

livedo reticularis,

peripheral

edema,

orthostatic hypotension and

headache.

Infrequently

(0.1-1%) occurring

adverse

reactions are: congestive heart

failure,

psychosis,

urinary retention,

dyspnea,

fatigue, skin rash, vomiting,

weakness,

slurred speech and visual

disturbance.

Rarely

(less than 0.1%) occurring

adverse

reactions are: instances of

convulsion,

leukopenia,

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 8 of 23

neutropenia,

eczematoid

dermatitis and oculogyric

episodes.

Some adverse effects were transient

disappeared often with

continued

administration of

drug.

SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms:

Overdosage has been characterized in one elderly patient who ingested 2.8 g of Amantadine

Hydrochloride. The patient had slightly dilated pupils which contracted minimally to light,

urinary retention, mild, mixed acid-base disturbances and an acute toxic psychosis manifested as

disorientation, confusion, visual hallucinations, and aggressive behavior. Convulsions did not

occur, possibly because the patient had been receiving phenytoin prior to acute ingestion of

Amantadine Hydrochloride.

Treatment:

There is no specific antidote. However, slowly administered intravenous physostigmine in 1 and

2 mg doses in an adult at 1 to 2 hours intervals and 0.5 mg doses in a child at 5 to 10 minute

intervals up to a maximum of 2 mg/hour have been reported to be effective in the control of

central nervous system toxicity caused by Amantadine Hydrochloride.

For acute overdosing, general supportive measures should be employed along with immediate

gastric lavage or induction of emesis. Fluids should be forced, and if necessary, given

intravenously.

Hemodialysis does not remove significant amounts of Amantadine; in patients with renal failure,

a four hour hemodialysis removed 7 to 15 mg after a single 300 mg oral dose. The pH of the

urine has been reported to influence the excretion rate of Amantadine.

Since the excretion rate of Amantadine increases rapidly when the urine is acidic, the

administration of urine acidifying drugs may increase the elimination of the drug from the body.

The blood pressure, pulse, respiration and temperature should be monitored. The patient should

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 9 of 23

be observed for hyperactivity and convulsions; if required, sedation and anticonvulsant therapy

should be administered. The patient should be observed for the possible development of

arrhythmias and hypotension; if required, appropriate antiarrhythmic and antihypotensive

therapy should be given.

The blood electrolytes, urine pH and urinary output should be monitored. If there is no record of

recent voiding, catheterization should be done. The possibility of multiple drug ingestion by the

patient should be considered.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Dosage for

Parkinsonism:

Adult: The usual dose of

pdp-AMANTADINE

Hydrochloride

(Amantadine Hydrochloride)

100 mg twice a day when used

alone.

pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride

has an

onset

of action usually within 48

hours.

The initial dose of pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride is 100 mg daily for patients with

serious associated medical illnesses or who are receiving high doses of other antiparkinson

drugs. After one to several weeks at 100 mg once daily, the dose may be increased to 100

mg twice daily, if necessary.

Occasionally, patients whose responses

not optimal with

pdp-AMANTADINE

Hydrochloride at 300 mg daily may

benefit

from an increase up to 400 mg daily

divided

doses. However such

patients

should be supervised closely by

their physicians.

Patients initially deriving benefit

from

pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride

uncommonly

experience a fall-off of

effectiveness

after a few months. Benefit may

regained by increasing the dose to 300

daily. Alternatively,

temporary

discontinuation

pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride

for several weeks,

followed

by reinitiation of the drug,

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 10 of 23

may result

regaining benefit in some patients.

decision to use other antiparkinson

drugs

may be

necessary.

Dosage for Concomitant

Therapy

Some patients who do not respond to anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs may respond to pdp-

AMANTADINE Hydrochloride. When pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride or anticholinergic

antiparkinson drugs are each used with marginal benefit, concomitant use may produce

additional benefit.

When pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride and levodopa are initiated concurrently, the patient

can exhibit rapid therapeutic benefits. Pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride should be held

constant at 100 mg daily or twice daily while the daily dose of levodopa is gradually increased to

optimal benefit.

When pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride is added to optimal well-tolerated doses of levodopa,

additional benefit may result, including smoothing out the fluctuations in improvement which

sometimes occur in patients on levodopa alone. Patients who require a reduction in their usual

dose of levodopa because of development of side effects may possibly regain lost benefit with

the addition of pdp-AMANTADINE Hydrochloride.

Dosage for Drug-Induced

Extrapyramidal

Reactions:

Adult: The usual dose of

pdp-AMANTADINE

Hydrochloride

is 100 mg twice a

day.

Occasionally, patients whose responses are not optimal with pdp-AMANTADINE

Hydrochloride at 200 mg daily may benefit from an increase up to 300 mg daily in divided

doses.

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 11 of 23

PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION

Drug Substance:

Proper Name:

Amantadine Hydrochloride

Chemical Name:

1-adamantanamine hydrochloride

Molecular Formula:

N.HCl

Molecular Weight:

187.72

Description:

Amantadine

Hydrochloride

stable

white

nearly

white

crystalline powder which has a bitter taste and is freely soluble in

water and soluble in alcohol.

Storage:

Store at controlled room temperature 15º - 30 ºC

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 12 of 23

AVAILABILITY OF DOSAGE FORMS

Capsules: Each red soft gelatin capsule imprinted with "0100" on one side and "Amant" on the

other contains 100 mg of Amantadine Hydrochloride, USP.

Bottles of 100. Tartrazine free.

Syrup: Each 5 mL of clear colorless syrup contains 50 mg of Amantadine Hydrochloride, USP.

Also contains parabens. Tartrazine free.

Bottles of 500 mL.

PHARMACOLOGY

The exact mechanism of action of Amantadine Hydrochloride in the treatment of parkinsonism

and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions is not known but appears to be unrelated to its

activity in the prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment of influenza A virus infections.

Amantadine does not have any appreciable anticholinergic activity; the drug probably exerts a

potentiating effect on catecholaminergic, including dopaminergic, neurotransmission in the CNS.

In one study, Amantadine Hydrochloride given IV to dogs reportedly caused release of

catecholamines from peripheral nerve storage sites; a similar mechanism for the drug's central

activity was proposed.

It has been postulated

that

Amantadine

causes release of dopamine

from

synaptosomes;

however, this may occur

only

following doses higher than those

employed

clinically.

There is some evidence that Amantadine,

usual therapeutic concentrations,

exert

antiparkinsonism

activity by

blocking

the reuptake of dopamine into

presynaptic

neurons,

thus causing accumulation

dopamine in the presynaptic clefts

dopaminergic neurons in

the basal

ganglia.

In addition, the drug may cause

direct

stimulation of postsynaptic

receptors.

In animals, several pharmacologic effects resulted from administration of Amantadine

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 13 of 23

Hydrochloride at relatively high doses. In mice, oral doses of 35-40 mg/Kg and above produced

signs of motor activity stimulation (increased spontaneous motor activity and antagonism of

tetrabenazine-induced sedation) occurred.

In dogs, a transient vasodepressor

effect,

cardiac arrythmias and a weak

ganglionic-

blocking effect were observed

following

intravenous doses of 13.5 mg/Kg or

above.

In the

rat and rabbit, EEG activation

been reported with high parenteral

doses.

In addition, relatively high doses

Amantadine Hydrochloride caused

several

effects in dog

(potentiation

norepinephrine

vasopressor response;

block

of phenethylamine vasopressor

response;

increase in myocardial contractible

force)

and mouse (block of norepinephrine

uptake

into the heart; antagonism of

tetrabenazine

effects) indicative of a block of uptake

norepinephrine

into labile

stores.

Amantadine Hydrochloride is well absorbed by the oral route in all species studied. The rate of

excretion of the drug is first order. The monkey and the mouse appear to metabolize it less than

other animals (rat, dog and rabbit) and most nearly approximate man. There is no evidence for

metabolism of the drug in man. The major route of elimination is via urine. Only the dog has

been shown to convert

portion of the administered drug to its

methylderivative

which

is excreted in

urine. No other metabolites have

been

identified.

TOXICOLOGY

Acute Toxicity

The acute toxicity of Amantadine Hydrochloride by the oral, intraperitoneal, and intravenous

route of administration was determined in several species of laboratory animals and the results

are presented in Table 1.

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 14 of 23

TABLE 1

ACUTE TOXICITY OF

AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE (48)

and 95% confidence limits

Species, sex

Oral

(mg/kg)

Intraperitoneal

(mg/kg)

Intraveneous

(mg/kg)

Mouse, F

700 (621, 779)

205 (194, 216)

97 (88, 106)

Rat, F

890 (761, 1019)

223 (167, 279)

Rat, M

1275 (1095, 1455)

Rat, neonatal, M, F

150 (111, 189)

Guinea Pig, F

360 (316, 404)

Dog, M, F

>372

>37

Monkey, rhesus, M

>500

Monkey, African

green, F

>75

Horse, M, F

>96

some emesis occured

The toxic signs produced by lethal or

near-

lethal doses of Amantadine Hydrochloride

these species were similar. Signs

central nervous system stimulation

followed

by tremors

and brief clonic

convulsions

were common to the 3 rodent species by

routes of

administration. Death

usually preceded by signs of

respiratory

distress and convulsions.

In spite

repeated convulsions, surviving

animals

appeared to be

normal.

All deaths in small animals occurred

quite

promptly. In mice after intravenous

doses

Amantadine Hydrochloride, death

occurred

between 7 min. and 2 hours;

intraperitoneal

doses caused deaths in

to 30 min;

oral

doses between 30 min. and 2 hours.

rats, death

occurred 30 min. to 2

hours

after intraperitoneal doses and 30 min.

24 hours after oral

doses. In guinea

pigs

oral doses of Amantadine

Hydrochloride

caused most deaths between 1

and 20

hours,

with a single animal dying at 44 hours.

the dog, at 93 mg/Kg and above, 3

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 15 of 23

vomited and showed all the other signs

central nervous system

stimulation,

including

clonic convulsions, varying

intensity

possibly with the amount of

drug

lost with emesis.

One dog, which did

vomit, died at

93mg/Kg.

In rhesus monkeys, Amantadine

Hydrochloride

orally caused no deaths at any dose

tested

and no signs at 80 mg/Kg or

less.

Acute oral toxicity experiments

in mice

subacute oral toxicity studies in rats

monkeys were carried out to

study

compatibility of Amantadine

Hydrochloride

with other

types of drugs used for

treatment of Parkinson syndrome. In

mice,

high doses of oral

levodopa, 200 and

mg/Kg, decreased the acute

intraperitoneal

of Amantadine

Hydrochloride

by 10

16%, respectively. Oral doses of

Atropine

4 and 40 mg/Kg, had no

effect on the

acute

intraperitoneal LD

Amantadine

Hydrochloride in

mice.

Chronic

Toxicity:

Chronic oral toxicity experiments

with

Amantadine Hydrochloride were carried

with

rats, dogs and

monkeys.

RATS: Duration was 88-94 weeks

with

Amantadine Hydrochloride

16, 80, and

100-

mg/Kg administered daily 5 days

week. At the high dose only,

statistically significant

decrease in body weight and excess mortality was seen:

signs

of central nervous system

stimulation

after

each dosing, reduced food intake

susceptibility

to infection were

noted.

DOGS: Duration was 2 years and Amantadine Hydrochloride levels were 8, 40 and 40-80

mg/Kg administered daily 5 days per week. Tremors, hyperexcitability and emesis were seen at

the middle and high levels and food intake was reduced. One dog in the middle and three dogs in

the high-level group died. In an additional dog experiment, 30 mg of Amantadine

Hydrochloride/Kg, divided into two doses six hours apart, was given seven days per week for six

months. No drug-related effect was seen.

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 16 of 23

MONKEYS: Duration was 6 months

Amantadine Hydrochloride

levels were 10,

100 mg/Kg administered daily 5 days

week. Stimulation was continuously

evident

in the

high level and was seen

sporadically

in the middle-level group. No

other

effects were

noted.

In none of these experiments with

rats, dogs

and monkeys were any

Amantadine

related

pathological or

histo-morphological

changes

seen.

REPRODUCTION

STUDIES

Amantadine Hydrochloride was administered orally in two separate doses of 120 mg/Kg (larger

dose group) and 40 mg/Kg once a day for 6 successive days from the 9th to the 14th day of

pregnancy to nullipara rats of Wistar strain at the age of 3-4 months in order to examine its

effects upon the foetus during the final stage of pregnancy and on their post-natal growth. The

results indicated a slight retardation of increase in the body weight of dams in the larger dose

group, but Amantadine had no effect on the nidations at the end of the final stage of pregnancy.

In the larger dose group, however, the mortality rate of the foetus and the drop in body weight of

surviving litter mates showed a significant difference from those of the control group, although

no deformation was observed in the group. Finally, observations on the growth of the litter mates

up to the end of the 6

post- natal week in the spontaneous parturition group indicated that the

parturition rate was significantly lower in the larger Amantadine dose group than in the control

group. Amantadine at the doses tested had no effect on suckling rate, external differentiation,

survival rate, auditory senses, mobility and development of gonadal functions or skeletal

structure.

Holtzman rats and New Zealand white rabbits were dosed orally with Amantadine Hydrochloride

(0, 50,100 mg/Kg) for 5 days prior to mating until day 5 of pregnancy.

In rats, but not in rabbits, results of autopsies performed in day 14 of gestation showed

significant decreases in the number of implantations and increases in the number of resorptions

at 100 mg/Kg.

pms-AMANTADINE Product Monograph

Page 17 of 23

Teratology

studies were performed in

rats

(0, 37, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) by

administering

drug orally on days 7-14 of

gestation.

Autopsy was just before

expected

parturition.

Increases in resorption

decreases in the number of pups per

litter

were noted at 50 and

100 mg/Kg.

Gross

examination of rat pups at these

dose

levels revealed no malformation at

mg/Kg. Malformations

at 50 and 100 mg/Kg included edema, malrotated

hindlimbs,

missing tail, stunting and

brachygnatha.

Examination of cleared and

alizarin-stained

skeletal

preparations of foetuses

revealed

cases of absent ribs and absence of the lumbar and sacral

portions of the

spinal

column in the 50 and 100 mg/Kg

groups.

Thus, in rats but not in rabbits,

Amantadine seems to be embryotoxic and teratogenic. Teratogenicity in rats occurs at 50

mg/Kg/day, or about 12 times the usual human dose.

In another study doses of 10 mg/Kg in

diet had no effect on rat reproduction

lactation

or number of live births. At

dose of 32 mg/Kg, fertility and

lactation

indices were

depressed.

In another rabbit study three groups of virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were dosed

orally with 0.8 or 32 mg/Kg of Amantadine Hydrochloride from day 6 after mating through and

including day 16. After 28 days the uterine contents were exposed. Amantadine Hydrochloride

did not alter the parameters of pregnancy or the observed characteristics of the offspring. The

conception rate and incidence of resorption was similar for all groups. Litter weight and fetal

loss were unaffected. Total weight and fetal loss were unaffected. Fetal weight was not

significantly reduced by either dose of the drug.

pms-Amantadine Product Monograph

Page 18 of 23

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AHFS Drug Information 90. ed.McEvoy, G.K., United States: American Society of

Hospital Pharmacists 1990; 2074-2076.

Ananth, J., H. Sangani, and J.P.A. Noonan.

1975. Amantadine in drug-induced

extrapyramidal signs: A comparative study. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacal. 11: 323-326.

Aoki, F.Y., D.S. Sitar, and R.I. ogilvie. 1979. Amantadine Kinetics in healthy young

subjects after long-term dosing. Clin. Pharmacal. Ther. 26: 729-736.

Aoki, F.Y., H.G. Stiver, D.S. sitar, A. Boudreault, and R.I.Ogilvie. 1985. Prophylactic

Amantadine dose and plasma concentration-effect relationships in healthy adults.

37: 128-136.

Appleton, D.B., M.J. Eadie, and J.M. Sutherland. 1970.Amantadine Hydrochloride in the

treatment of Parkinsonism. Med. J. of Austral. 59: 626-629.

Barbeau, A., H. Mars, M.I. Botez, and M. Joubert. 1971.

Amantadine HCl (Symmetrel) in the management of Parkinson's Disease: a double-blind

cross over study. C.M.A. Journal., 105: 42-46.

Bleidner,

W.E.,

J.B.

Harman,

W.E.

Hewes,

T.E.

Lynes,

E.C.

Herman.

1965.

Absorption, distribution, and excretion of amantadine hydrochloride. J. Pharmacol. Exp.

Ther. 150: 484-490.

Campbell, A.M.G., and M.J. Williams. 1972. Trial of amantadine in Parkinson's Disease.

Brit. J. Clin. In Pract. 26: 19-26.

Castaigne, P. D. Laplane, and G. Dordain.1972. ,

L'amantadine: experimentation clinique prolongée chez 50 parkinsoniens.

pms-Amantadine Product Monograph

Page 19 of 23

Nouv. Presse. Med. 1: 533-536.

Comparative

Bioavailability

Study

pdp-AMANTADINE

Hydrochloride

Capsules,

100mg vs Symmetrel Capsules, (Dupont), 100mg. March 1989. Pharmascience Inc.

Data on file.

Couch, R.B. and G.G. Jackson. 1976.Antiviral Agents in Influenza. J. of Infect. Dis. 134:

516-527.

DiMascio, A., D.L. Bernardo, D.J. Greenblatt, and J.E.

Marder. 1976. A controlled trial of amantadine in drug-induced extrapyramidal

disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry.

33: 599-602.

Fahn, S., G. Craddock, and G. Kumin. psychosis from suicidal overdosage of Neural.

25: 45-48.

Fahn, W.E. and C.R. Lake.

1976. Amantadine versus trihexyphenidyl in the treatment

of neuroleptic-induced Parkinsonism. Arch. J. Psychiatry. 133: 940-943.

Farkas, E. 1969. General discussion session VI.

Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 41: 699.

Fayez, M., H.H. Ahmed, and S.K. Quadri. 1985. Inhibition of Plasma Prolactin in the Rat

by Amantadine. Life Sciences. 37: 1877-1880.

Finklea, J.F., A.V. Hennessy, and F.M. Davenport. 1967. A field trial of amantadine

prophylaxis in naturally occurring acute respiratory illness. Am. J. Epidemiol. 85: 403-

412.

Fishaut, M. 1980. Amantadine for severe Influenza A pneumonia in infancy. Am. J. Dis.

Child. 134: 321-322.

pms-Amantadine Product Monograph

Page 20 of 23

Floor-Wieringa, A., H. Geuens, and R. van Strik. 1967.

Prophylactic and therapeutic clinical trials with 1-adamantane amine hydrochloride

during Influenza A2 epidemics. Proc. 5th. Int. Congress Chemother. Vienna.4: 333-346.

Getz, R. 1970. Symmetrel in Parkinson's Disease. s. African Med. J. 44: 955-956.

Grelak, R.P., R. Clark, J.M. stump, and V.G. Vernier.1970.

Amantadine - Dopamine Interaction: Possible Mode of Action in Parkinsonism.

Science. 169: 203-204.

Hayden, F.G., H.E. Hoffman, and D.A. Spyker.1983.

Differences in side effects of amantadine hydrochloride and rimantidine hydrochloride

relate to differences in pharmacokinetics. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemother. 23: 458-464.

Hayden, F.G., A. Minocha, D.A. Spyker, and H.E. Hoffman.

1985. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of amantadine hydrochloride and

rimantidine hydrochloride in young and elderly adults. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemother.28:

216-221.

Jorgensen, P.B., J.D. Bergin, L. Hass, J.A.K. Cunningham, D.D. Marak, M. Pollock, R.G.

Robinson, and G.F.S. Spears.

1971. Controlled trial of amantadine hydrochloride in Parkinson's Disease. New zealand

Med. J. 73: 263-267.

Killen, D.A., H. Hattori, and C.F. Zukoski.

1969. Failure of Amantadine Hydrochloride

to suppress Canine Renal Homograft Rejection. Surgery. 66: 550-554.

Kitamoto, 0. 1968. Therapeutic effectiveness of Amantadine Hydrochloride in Influenza

A2. Jap. J. Tuverc. Chest & Dis. 15: 17-26.

Lamar, J.K., F.J. Calhoun, and A.G. Darr. Effects of Amantadine Hydrochloride on

Cleavage and Embryonic Development in the Rat and Rabbit. Abstracts of Papers for the

pms-Amantadine Product Monograph

Page 21 of 23

9th. Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Atlanta, Georgia, March 15-19, 1970.

Maciag, W.J. and C.E. Hoffman.1968. Production of antibody in antadine Hydrochloride

Treated Mice. Virology. 35: 622-624.

Martindale. The Extra Pharmacopeia. 29th ed. ed: Reynolds, J.E.F., London: The

Pharmaceutical Press, 1989; 1189-1193.

Merrick, E.M. and P.P. Schmitt. 1973. A controlled study of the clinical effects of

amantadine hydrochloride (Symmetrel). Curr. Therap. Res. 15: 552-558.

Millet, V.M. M. Dreisbach, and Y.J. Brysen. 1982. Double- blind controlled study of

central nervous system side effects of amantadine rimantidine and chlorpheniramine

Antimicrob. Ag.Chemother. 21: 1-4.

Oxford, J.S. and Galbraith. 1985.

Anti Influenza Virus Activity of Amantadine: A

Selective Review of Laboratory and Clinical Data. Chap 6, 169-254.

Parkes, D. 1971. Amantadine in Parkinson's Disease: A new Approach to Treatment.

ed. G.F. Bridwood, S.S.B. Gilder and C.A.S. Wink. Academic Press, London, 11-81.

Parkes, J.D., G. Curzon, P.J. Knott, R. Tattersall, R.C.H.

Baxter, R.P. Knill-Janes, C.D. Marsden, and D. Vollum. 1971.

Treatment of Parkinson's Disease with amantadine and·Levodopa. Lancet. May 29: 1083-

1086.

Parkes, J.D., P. Marsden, K.J. Zilkha, R.C.H. Baxter, and R.P. Knill-Jones.

1970. Amantadine Dosage in treatment of Parkinson's Disease. Lancet. May 30: 1130-

1133.

Peaston, M.J.T., J.R. Bianchine, and F.S. Messiha. 1973.

Effect of amantadine on L-2-C-DOPA Metabolism in Parkinsonism. Life Sci. 13: 237-

pms-Amantadine Product Monograph

Page 22 of 23

246.

Physicians' Desk Reference 1988 (PDR). 42nd ed. Publisher: Barnhart, E.R., New Jersey:

Medical Economics Company Inc. 1988: 931-933.

Rao, N.S. and J. Pearce. 1971. Amantadine in Parkinsonism.

An extended prospective trial. Practitioner. 206: 241-245

Savery, F. 1977. Amantadine and a fixed combination of levodopa and carbidopa in the

treatment of Parkinson's Disease. Dis. Nerv. Sys. 38: 605-608.

Scatton, B., A. Cheramy, M.J. Besson, and J. Glowinski. 1970. Increased synthesis'and

release of Dopamine in the Striatum of the Rat After Amantadine Treatment. Europ. J. of

Pharmacol. 13: 131-133, 1970.

Schwab, R.S., D.C. Poskanzer, A.C. England, and R.R. Young. 1972. Amantadine in

Parkinson's Disease. A review of more than two year's experience. JAMA. 222: 792-795.

Schweiger, A.C., and A.C. Jenkins. 1970. Observations on the effect of amantadine

hydrochloride in the treatment of Parkinsonism. Med. J. Austral. 58: 630-632.

Sigwald, J. and Cl. Raymondeaud. 1972. Association d’amantadine à la levodopa dans le

traitement de la maladie Parkinson. Nouv. Presse. Med. 1: 1237-1239

Silver, D.E. and Sahs, A.L. 1972. Livedo reticularis in Parkinson's disease patients

treated with amantadine hydrochloride. Neurology. 22: 665-669.

Smorodinstev, A.A., G.I. Karpuhin, D.M. Zlydnikov, A.M. Malyseva, E.G. Svecova,

S.A. Burov, L.M. Hramcova, J.A. Romanov, L.J. Taros, J.G. Ivannikov, and S.D.

Novoselov. 1970. The prophylactic effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in an

epidemic of Hong Kong influenza in Leningrad in 1969. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 42: 865-

872.

pms-Amantadine Product Monograph

Page 23 of 23

Smorodinstev, A.A., D.M. Zlydnikov, A.M. Kiseleva, J.A.

Romanov, A.P. Kazanstev, and V.I. Rumovsky. 1970. Evaluation of amantadine in

artificially induced A2 and B influenza. JAMA. 213: 1448-1454.

Stenson, R.L., P.T. Donlon, and J.E. Meyer. 1976.

Comparison of benztropine mesylate and amantadine HCl in neuroleptic-induced

extrapyramidal symptoms. Compreh. Psychiatry. 17: 763-768.

Symmetrel Product Monograph. (Amantadine HCl). Antiparkinsonian Agent. Du Pont

Pharmaceuticals. Sept 13, 1983.

Vernier, V.G., J.B. Harmon, J.M. Stump, T.E. Lynes, J.P.

Marvel, and D.H. Smith. 1969. The Toxicologic and Pharmacologic Properties of

Amantadine Hydrochloride Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacal. 15: 642-665.

Vollum, D., J. D. Parkes, and D. Doyle. 1971. Livedo reticularis during amantadine

treatment. Brit. Med. J. ii, 627-628.

Von Voigtlander, P.F. and K.E. Moore. 1971.Dopamine: Release from the Brain in vivo

by Amantadine. Science. 174: 408-410.

Last Revised: March 13, 2017

Similar products

Search alerts related to this product

Share this information