Issued: August 2012
Summary of Product Characteristics
1. NAME OF THE VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Soludox 500 mg/g powder for use in drinking water for turkeys
FR: Soludox 433 mg/g powder for use in drinking water for turkeys
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
1 gram of powder contains:
Doxycycline hyclate 500 mg, corresponding to 433 mg doxycycline
FR: Doxycycline 433 mg, corresponding to 500 mg doxycycline hyclate
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1
3 PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Powder for use in drinking water
Yellow crystalline powder
4 CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1 Target species
Turkeys (broilers, breeders).
4.2 Indications for use, specifying the target species
Turkeys: treatment of clinical respiratory infections associated with Mycoplasma
gallisepticum susceptible to doxycycline
Do not use in case of known hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the
Do not use in animals with hepatic dysfunction.
4.4 Special warning for each target species.
The uptake of medication by animals can be altered as a consequence of illness. In
case of insufficient uptake of drinking water, turkeys should be treated parenterally.
4.5 Special precautions for use
Special precautions for use in animals
Inappropriate use of the product may increase the prevalence of bacteria resistant to
tetracycline due to the potential for cross resistance. Do not use when tetracycline
resistance has been detected in the herd/flock.
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Use of the product should be based on susceptibility testing and take into account
official and local antimicrobial policies.
As eradication of the target pathogens may not be achieved, medication should
therefore be combined with good management practices, e.g. good hygiene, proper
ventilation, no overstocking.
Avoid administration in oxidised drinking equipment.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary
medicinal product to animals
If you know you are allergic to the tetracycline class of antibiotics, special care
should be taken when handling this product or the medicated solution.
During preparation and administration of the medicated drinking water, skin contact
with the product and inhalation of dust particles should be avoided. Wear
impermeable gloves (e.g. rubber or latex) and an appropriate dust mask (e.g.
disposable half-mask respirator conforming to European Standard EN149) when
applying the product.
In the event of eye or skin contact, rinse the affected area with large amounts of
clean water and if irritation occurs, seek medical attention. Wash hands and
contaminated skin immediately after handling the product.
If you develop symptoms following exposure such as skin rash, you should seek
medical advice and show this warning to the physician. Swelling of the face, lips or
eyes, or difficulty with breathing are more serious symptoms and require urgent
Do not smoke, eat or drink while handling the product.
Take measures to avoid producing dust when incorporating the product into water.
Avoid direct contact with skin and eyes when handling the product to prevent
sensitisation and contact dermatitis.
4.6 Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
As for all tetracyclines, on rare occasions allergic reactions and photosensitivity may
occur. If suspected adverse reactions occur, treatment should be discontinued. If you
notice any serious effects or other effects not mentioned in this leaflet, please inform
your veterinary surgeon.
4.7 Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
Laboratory studies in rats and rabbits have not produced any evidence of a
teratogenic, foetotoxic, maternotoxic effects.
4.8 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Do not combine with antibiotics that are bactericidal e.g. penicillins or
Absorption of doxycycline can be decreased in the presence of high quantities of
calcium, iron, magnesium or aluminium in the diet. Do not administered together with
antacids, kaolin and iron preparations.
It is advised that the interval between the administration of other products containing
polyvalent cations should be 1-2 hours because they limit the absorption of
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Doxycycline increases the action of anticoagulants.
The solubility of the product is pH dependent and will precipitate if mixed in alkaline
4.9 Amounts to be administered and administration route
Administration orally with the drinking water.
Dosage in turkeys: 25 mg doxycycline corresponding to 29 mg doxycycline hyclate
per kg of body weight daily (equivalent to 58 mg product per kg of body weight),
administered in the drinking water for 5 consecutive days.
The product should be administered continuously in the drinking water during the
whole period of treatment. Based on the dose to be used, and the number and
weight of the birds to be treated, the exact daily amount of product can be
calculated. The following formula can be used to calculate the concentration of the
product in drinking water:
58 mg product / kg
body weight / day X Mean body weight (kg)
of birds to be treated = .... mg product per
l drinking water
Mean daily water consumption (l) per bird
To ensure a correct dosage body weight should be determined as accurately as
possible. The uptake of medicated drinking water depends on the clinical condition of
the birds. In order to obtain the correct dosage the concentration of doxycycline has
to be adjusted accordingly. The use of suitably calibrated weighing equipment is
recommended if part packs are used. The daily amount is to be added to the drinking
water such that all medication will be consumed in 24 hours. Medicated drinking
water should be refreshed or replaced every 24 hours. It is recommended to prepare
a concentrated pre-solution - approximately 100 grams product per litre drinking
water - and to dilute this further to therapeutic concentrations if required.
Alternatively, the concentrated solution can be used in a proportional water
medicator. Solubility of the product is pH dependent and it may precipitate if it is
mixed in hard alkaline drinking water. Use at minimum concentrations of 200 mg
powder per litre drinking water in areas with hard alkaline drinking water (hardness
above 10.2 °d and pH more than 8.1). During the treatment period birds should not
have access to other water sources than the medicated water.
4.10 Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes)
No adverse effects were observed after administration of doxycycline to turkeys at
the fivefold therapeutic dose for up to 10 days. If suspected toxic reactions do occur
due to extreme overdose, the medication should be discontinued and appropriate
symptomatic treatment should be initiated if necessary.
4.11 Withdrawal periods
- Meat and offal: 12 days
- Eggs: Not to be used in birds producing eggs for human consumption
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5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterial - Tetracycline. ATC vet code: QJ 01 AA 02
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Doxycycline belongs to the group of the tetracycline antibiotics. These antibiotics
have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, sharing the same basic structure of
Doxycycline is primarily a bacteriostatic drug. It exerts its action by inhibiting the
protein synthesis of the bacterial cell. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis results
in disturbance of all functions necessary for the life of bacteria. Especially cell-
division and the formation of the cell wall are impaired.
Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, active against a large number of Gram-
positive and Gram-negative, aerobe and anaerobe micro-organisms, Mycoplasma
spp., Chlamydiae and Rickettsia.
The MIC90 of doxycycline against Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated in
France, Germany and Hungary (2003-2009) was reported 0.5 µg/ml. The resistance
rate of M. gallisepticum isolates against doxycycline is low.
Four resistance mechanisms acquired by microorganisms against tetracyclines in
general have been reported: Decreased accumulation of tetracyclines (decreased
permeability of the bacterial cell wall and active efflux), protein protection of the
bacterial ribosome, enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic and rRNA mutations
(preventing the tetracycline binding to ribosome). Tetracycline resistance is usually
acquired by means of plasmids or other mobile elements (e.g. conjugative
transposones). Cross resistance between tetracyclines has also been described.
Due to the greater liposolubility and greater facility to pass through cell membranes
(in comparison to tetracycline), doxycycline retains a certain degree of efficacy
against microorganisms with acquired resistance to tetracyclines.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
In general, doxycycline is quite rapidly and extensively absorbed from the
gastrointestinal tract, widely distributed in the organism, not metabolised to any
significant extent and excreted mostly via the faeces.
Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline after single oral administration to turkeys is
characterised by a quite rapid and substantial absorption from the gastrointestinal
tract providing peak plasma concentrations between 1.5 to 7.5 hours depending on
age and the presence of food. The drug is widely distributed in the organism with Vd
values close to or greater than 1, and exhibits an elimination half-life in turkeys of 7.9
to 10.8 hours. The protein binding ratio at therapeutic plasma concentrations is in the
range of 70-85%. The bioavailability in turkeys may vary between 25 and 64%, also
depending on the age and feeding. The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract
determines a lower bioavailability compared to that obtained in the fasted state.
After continuous in-water administration of the product at dosages of 25 mg
doxycycline/kg in turkeys for 5 days the average plasma concentrations over the
whole treatment period were reported 2.24±1.02 µg/ml in turkeys. PK/PD analysis of
AUC/MIC90 data resulted in >24 h values that meet the requirements for
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6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS
6.1 List of excipients
Solubility of doxycycline is pH dependent. Precipitation will occur in an alkaline
solution. In the absence of compatibility studies, this product must not be mixed with
other veterinary medicinal products.
6.3 Shelf life
Shelf-life of the veterinary medicinal product as packaged for sale: 3 years
Shelf-life after first opening the immediate packaging: 6 months
Shelf-life after dilution or reconstitution according to directions: After reconstitution
with water, any product remaining after 24 hours should be discarded.
6.4 Storage precautions
This veterinary medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
Keep the bag tightly closed after first opening in order to protect from moisture.
6.5 Nature and composition of immediate packaging
Bags of 1 kg. Sachets of 100 grams packed per 10 in a carton box
1000 g bag: polyester, polyethylene, aluminium, polyethylene and an inner layer of
1000 g bag: polyethylene terephtalic acid, aluminium, polyamide and an inner layer of
100 g sachet: polyester, polyethylene, aluminium and an inner layer of ionomer
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for the disposal of unused veterinary medicinal
product or waste materials derived from the use of such products
Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such
veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local
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7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Eurovet Animal Health B.V.
5531 AE Bladel
8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER
9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION
28 August 2012
10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
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