PAVTIDE ACCUHALER 500/ 50 fluticasone propionate 500 microgram/ salmeterol (as xinafoate) 50 microgram powder for inhalation blist

Main information

  • Trade name:
  • PAVTIDE ACCUHALER 500/ 50 fluticasone propionate 500 microgram/ salmeterol (as xinafoate) 50 microgram powder for inhalation blist
  • Medicine domain:
  • Humans
  • Medicine type:
  • Allopathic drug

Documents

Localization

  • Available in:
  • PAVTIDE ACCUHALER 500/50 fluticasone propionate 500 microgram/salmeterol (as xinafoate) 50 microgram powder for inhalation blist
    Australia
  • Language:
  • English

Status

  • Source:
  • Dept. of Health,Therapeutic Goods Administration - Australia
  • Authorization status:
  • Registered
  • Authorization number:
  • 208202
  • Last update:
  • 20-05-2019

Public Assessment Report

Public Summary

Summary for ARTG Entry:

208202

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER 500/50 fluticasone propionate 500 microgram/salmeterol (as xinafoate) 50

microgram powder for inhalation blister pack

ARTG entry for

Medicine Registered

Sponsor

GlaxoSmithKline Australia Pty Ltd

Postal Address

PO Box 18095,Melbourne, VIC, 8003

Australia

ARTG Start Date

7/05/2014

Product category

Medicine

Status

Active

Approval area

Drug Safety Evaluation Branch

Conditions

Conditions applicable to all therapeutic goods as specified in the document "Standard Conditions Applying to Registered or Listed Therapeutic Goods

Under Section 28 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989" effective 1 July 1995.

Conditions applicable to the relevant category and class of therapeutic goods as specified in the document "Standard Conditions Applying to Registered

or Listed Therapeutic Goods Under Section 28 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989" effective 1 July 1995.

Products

1. PAVTIDE ACCUHALER 500/50 fluticasone propionate 500 microgram/salmeterol (as xinafoate) 50

microgram powder for inhalation blister pack

Product Type

Single Medicine Product

Effective date

15/03/2017

Warnings

See Product Information and Consumer Medicine Information for this product

Standard Indications

Specific Indications

For the regular treatment of asthma, where the use of a combination product is appropriate. This may include:,*Patients on effective maintenance doses

of long-acting beta2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids.,*Patients who are symptomatic on current inhaled corticosteroid therapy.,For the symptomatic

treatment of patients with severe COPD (FEV1<50% predicted normal) and a history of repeated exacerbations who have significant symptoms despite

regular beta-2 agonist bronchodilator therapy. Pavtide is not indicated for the initiation of bronchodilator therapy in COPD.

Additional Product information

Container information

Type

Material

Life Time

Temperature

Closure

Conditions

Blister Pack

Not recorded

24 Months

Store below 30

degrees Celsius

Not recorded

Store in a Dry Place

Pack Size/Poison information

Pack Size

Poison Schedule

28 dose

(S4) Prescription Only Medicine

28 dose (sample)

(S4) Prescription Only Medicine

60 dose

(S4) Prescription Only Medicine

Components

1. Medicine Component

Dosage Form

Inhalation, powder for

Route of Administration

Oral

Visual Identification

A two-tone purple, circular device in moulded plastic, approximately 8.5cm

in diameter and approximately 3cm high, with a dose counter indicating 28

or 60 doses.

Active Ingredients

fluticasone propionate

500 microgram/actuation

Salmeterol xinafoate

72.5 microgram/actuation

© Commonwealth of Australia.This work is copyright.You are not permitted to re-transmit, distribute or commercialise the material without obtaining prior

written approval from the Commonwealth.Further details can be found at http://www.tga.gov.au/about/website-copyright.htm.

Public Summary

Page 1 of

Produced at 27.11.2017 at 11:19:03 AEDT

This is not an ARTG Certificate document.

The onus is on the reader to verify the current accuracy of the information on the document subsequent to the date shown.

Visit www.tga.gov.au for contact information

Summary of Product characteristics: dosage, interactions, side effects

AUSTRALIAN PRODUCT INFORMATION

PAVTIDE (fluticasone propionate/ salmeterol xinafoate)

ACCUHALER AND MDI

1

NAME OF THE MEDICINE

Fluticasone propionate/ salmeterol xinafoate

2

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER:

Each a foil strip contains regularly placed blisters each containing 100, 250 or 500

micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 50 micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate).

PAVTIDE MDI:

Each single actuation provides 50, 125 or 250 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 25

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate)

List of excipients with known effect

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER also contains the excipient lactose monohydrate (which contains

milk protein).

For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1 LIST OF EXCIPIENTS.

3

PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER: Powder for inhalation

PAVTIDE MDI: Pressurised inhalation

4

CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1

THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS

For the regular treatment of asthma, where the use of a combination product is appropriate.

This may include:

Patients on effective maintenance doses of long-acting beta-2 agonists and inhaled

corticosteroids

Patients who are symptomatic on current inhaled corticosteroid therapy

Initiation of maintenance therapy in those patients with moderate persistent asthma

not adequately controlled on ‘as needed’ reliever medication, and who have

moderate/severe airway limitation and daily symptoms requiring reliever medication

every day (see Section 5.1 PHARMACODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, Clinical trials).

For the symptomatic treatment of patients with severe COPD (FEV1<50% predicted normal)

and a history of repeated exacerbations who have significant symptoms despite regular

beta-2 agonist bronchodilator therapy. PAVTIDE is not indicated for the initiation of

bronchodilator therapy in COPD.

4.2

DOSE AND METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER and MDI are for inhalation only.

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER and MDI must be used regularly for optimum benefit, even when

asymptomatic.

Patients should be regularly assessed by a doctor, so the dose of PAVTIDE they are

receiving remains optimal. Strength of dose should only be increased or decreased on

medical advice.

The use of one puff twice daily (bd) of the MDI has not been investigated in clinical trials.

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER:

The ACCUHALER releases a powder that is inhaled into the lungs. The device is opened

and primed by sliding the lever. The mouthpiece is then placed in the mouth and the lips

closed around it. The dose can then be inhaled and the device closed. A dose counter on

the ACCUHALER indicates the number of doses left.

For more detailed instructions for use refer to the patient information leaflet.

PAVTIDE MDI:

PAVTIDE MDI is available with or without a counter. The MDI comprises a suspension of

fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in a CFC-free propellant. The suspension is

contained in an aluminium alloy canister sealed with a metering valve. The canisters are

fitted into plastic actuators incorporating an atomising orifice and fitted with dustcaps. For

PAVTIDE MDI with counter, the canister has a counter attached to it, which shows how

many actuations of medicine are left. The number of actuations left will show through a

window in the back of the plastic actuator.

For more detailed instructions for use refer to the patient information leaflet.

Asthma

The dose of fluticasone propionate should be titrated to the lowest dose at which effective

control of symptoms is maintained.

Patients should be given the dose of PAVTIDE containing the appropriate fluticasone

propionate dosage for the severity of their disease.

Adults and children over 12 years:

The recommended dose for regular asthma management is 100/50 micrograms to 500/50

micrograms fluticasone propionate/salmeterol twice daily:

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER:

One inhalation (100/50 micrograms to 500/50 micrograms)

twice daily.

PAVTIDE MDI:

Two inhalations (50/25 micrograms to 250/25 micrograms)

twice daily.

The recommended dose for initiation of maintenance therapy in moderate persistent

asthma is 100/50 micrograms fluticasone propionate/salmeterol twice daily:

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER:

One inhalation (100/50 micrograms) twice daily.

PAVTIDE MDI:

Two inhalations (50/25 micrograms) twice daily.

Patients commenced on PAVTIDE as initial maintenance therapy should be reviewed after

6-12 weeks. In patients whose asthma is well controlled and stable, cessation of salmeterol

and transfer to maintenance therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid alone should be

considered.

Children 4 years and over:

The recommended dose for regular asthma management is 100/50 micrograms fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol twice daily:

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER:

One inhalation (100/50 micrograms) twice daily.

PAVTIDE MDI:

Two inhalations (50/25 micrograms) twice daily.

The safety and efficacy of PAVTIDE for the initiation of maintenance treatment in this age

group has not been established. There are no data available for use of PAVTIDE in children

aged under 4 years.

Special patient groups:

There is no need to adjust the dose in elderly patients or in those with renal or hepatic

impairment.

COPD

Adults:

The recommended dose is 250/50 micrograms or 500/50 micrograms fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol twice daily:

PAVTIDE

ACCUHALER:

One inhalation 500/50 micrograms twice daily.

One inhalation 250/50 micrograms twice daily may be a

consideration in patients who are at a greater risk of inhaled

corticosteroid adverse effects (see Section 5.1

PHARMACODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, Clinical trials and Section

4.2 DOSE AND METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION).

PAVTIDE MDI:

Two inhalations 250/25 micrograms twice daily.

Two inhalations 125/25 micrograms twice daily may be a

consideration in patients who are at a greater risk of inhaled

corticosteroid adverse effects (see Section 5.1

PHARMACODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, Clinical trials and Section

4.2 DOSE AND METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION).

4.3

CONTRAINDICATIONS

PAVTIDE is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any ingredients of

the preparation (see Section 2 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION and

Section 6.1 LIST OF EXCIPIENTS).

4.4

SPECIAL WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS FOR USE

The management of asthma should normally follow a stepwise program and patient

response should be monitored clinically and by lung function tests. Treatment of asthma

should be in accordance with current National asthma treatment guidelines.

PAVTIDE is not for relief of acute symptoms for which a fast- and short-acting inhaled

bronchodilator (e.g. salbutamol) is required. Patients should be advised to have their relief

medication available at all times.

Increasing use of short-acting bronchodilators to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of

control and patients should be reviewed by a physician.

Sudden and progressive deterioration in control of asthma is potentially life threatening and

the patient should be reviewed by a physician. Consideration should be given to increasing

corticosteroid therapy. Also, where the current dosage of PAVTIDE has failed to give

adequate control of asthma, the patient should be reviewed by a physician. For patients with

asthma or COPD, consideration should be given to additional corticosteroid therapies and

administration of antibiotics if an exacerbation is associated with infection.

Treatment should not be stopped abruptly in patients with asthma due to risk of

exacerbation; therapy should be titrated-down under physician supervision. For patients

with COPD cessation of therapy may be associated with symptomatic decompensation and

should be supervised by a physician.

There was an increased reporting of pneumonia in studies of patients with COPD receiving

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (see Section 4.8 ADVERSE EFFECTS (UNDESIRABLE

EFFECTS)). Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in

patients with COPD as the clinical features of pneumonia and exacerbation frequently

overlap.

As with all medications containing corticosteroids, PAVTIDE should be administered with

caution in patients with active or quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis.

PAVTIDE should be administered with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis.

Cardiovascular effects, such as increases in systolic blood pressure and heart rate, may

occasionally be seen with all sympathomimetic drugs, especially at higher than therapeutic

doses. For this reason, PAVTIDE should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing

cardiovascular disease.

A transient decrease in serum potassium may occur with all sympathomimetic drugs at

higher therapeutic doses. Therefore, PAVTIDE should be used with caution in patients

predisposed to low levels of serum potassium.

Rare instances of glaucoma and increased intraocular pressure have been reported

following administration of inhaled corticosteroids. If a patient presents with a change in

vision, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of

possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central

serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR).

Care should be taken when transferring patients to PAVTIDE therapy, particularly if there is

any reason to suppose that adrenal function is impaired from previous systemic steroid

therapy.

PAVTIDE should not be initiated in patients with unstable or acutely deteriorating asthma,

which may be a life-threatening condition. Serious acute respiratory events, including

fatalities, have been reported when salmeterol has been initiated in this situation. Although it

is not possible from these reports to determine whether salmeterol contributed to these

adverse events or failed to relieve the deteriorating asthma, the use of salmeterol in this

setting is inappropriate.

PAVTIDE should not be used to transfer patients from oral to inhaled steroids.

In rare cases inhaled therapy may unmask underlying eosinophilic conditions (e.g. Churg

Strauss syndrome). These cases have usually been associated with reduction or withdrawal

of oral corticosteroid therapy. A direct causal relationship has not been established.

There have been very rare reports of increases in blood glucose levels (see Section 4.8

ADVERSE EFFECTS (UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS)) and this should be considered when

prescribing to patients with a history of diabetes mellitus.

A drug interaction study in healthy subjects has shown that ritonavir (a highly potent

cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor) can greatly increase fluticasone propionate plasma

concentrations, resulting in markedly reduced serum cortisol concentrations. During post-

marketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients

receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects

including Cushing's syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore, concomitant use of

fluticasone propionate and ritonavir should be avoided, unless the potential benefit to the

patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects.

It was observed in a drug interaction study that concomitant use of systemic ketoconazole

increases exposure to salmeterol. This may lead to prolongation in the QTc interval. Due to

the potential increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events, the concomitant use of

salmeterol with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, atazanavir, ritonavir,

clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir) is not

recommended (see Sections 4.5 INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER MEDICINES AND OTHER

FORMS OF INTERACTIONS and 5.2 PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES).

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with an immediate

increase in wheezing after dosing. This should be treated immediately with a fast-acting

inhaled bronchodilator. PAVTIDE should be discontinued immediately, the patient

assessed, and if necessary alternative therapy instituted.

The pharmacological side-effects of beta-2 agonist treatment, such as tremor, subjective

palpitations and headache, have been reported, but tend to be transient and may reduce

with regular therapy.

Spacer Devices

Most patients will benefit from the consistent use of a spacer device with their metered dose

inhaler (MDI or ‘puffer’), particularly those with poor inhaler technique. Use of a spacer will

also decrease the amount of drug deposited in the mouth and back of the throat, and

therefore reduce the incidence of local side effects such as ‘thrush’ and a hoarse voice.

A change in the make of spacer may be associated with alterations in the amount of drug

delivered to the lungs. The clinical significance of these alterations is uncertain. However,

in these situations, the person should be monitored for any loss of asthma control.

If using a spacer, the patient should be instructed to actuate the inhaler into the spacer and

then slowly breathe in as far as possible. Hold your breath for as long as comfortable,

before breathing out slowly. This should be repeated for each actuation of the drug into the

spacer. Any delays between actuation and inhalation should be kept to a minimum.

Static on the walls of the spacer may cause variability in drug delivery. Patients should be

instructed to wash the spacer in warm water and detergent and allow it to air dry without

rinsing or drying with a cloth. This should be performed before initial use of the spacer and

at least monthly thereafter.

Possible systemic effects, including Adrenocortical function, Bone density and

Growth:

Inhaled steroids are designed to direct glucocorticoid delivery to the lungs in order to reduce

overall systemic glucocorticoid exposure and side effects. With sufficient doses however, all

inhaled steroids can have adverse effects; possible systemic effects include Cushing’s

syndrome, Cushingoid features, depression of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis

(see Section 4.9 OVERDOSE), reduction of bone mineral density, cataract, glaucoma and

retardation of growth rate in children and adolescents.

The lowest dose of inhaled fluticasone that causes suppression of the HPA axis (as

indicated by the 24 hour urinary cortisol concentrations), effects on bone mineral density or

growth retardation in children has not yet been established. Some depression of plasma

cortisol may occur in a small number of adult patients on higher doses (e.g. >1 mg/day).

However, adrenal function and adrenal reserve usually remain within normal range on

inhaled fluticasone propionate therapy. To minimise the systemic effects of inhaled

corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate, each patient should be titrated down to the

lowest dose that effectively controls his/her asthma (see Section 4.2 DOSE AND METHOD

OF ADMINISTRATION).

Data regarding the effect of long term use of inhaled fluticasone on bone mineral density in

elderly patients are limited.

Patients in a medical or surgical emergency, who in the past have required high doses of

inhaled steroids and/or intermittent treatment with oral steroids, remain at risk of impaired

adrenal reserve for a considerable time. The extent of the adrenal impairment may require

specialist advice before elective procedures. The possibility of residual impaired adrenal

response should always be borne in mind in emergency and elective situations likely to

produce stress and appropriate corticosteroid treatment must be considered (see Section

4.9 OVERDOSE).

Use in the elderly

There are no special precautions for use in the elderly.

Paediatric use

PAVTIDE is not recommended as initiation of maintenance therapy in children. In children,

less than 6 years of age, PAVTIDE is recommended only after alternative options such as an

ICS and/or leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) have been trialled.

The growth of paediatric patients receiving corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate,

should be monitored. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be

weighed against the clinical benefits obtained. To minimise the systemic effects of inhaled

corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate, each patient should be titrated down to the

lowest dose that effectively controls his/her asthma (see Section 4.2 DOSE AND METHOD

OF ADMINISTRATION).

In children taking recommended doses of inhaled fluticasone propionate, adrenal function

and adrenal reserve usually remain within the normal range. However, the possible effects

of previous or intermittent treatment with oral steroids should not be discounted.

Nevertheless, the benefits of inhaled fluticasone propionate should minimise the need for

oral steroids.

Effects on laboratory tests

No data available.

4.5

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER MEDICINES AND OTHER FORMS OF

INTERACTIONS

Both non-selective and selective beta-blockers should be avoided unless there are

compelling reasons for their use.

Under normal circumstances, low plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate are

achieved after inhaled dosing, due to extensive first pass metabolism and high systemic

clearance mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 in the gut and liver. Hence, clinically

significant drug interactions mediated by fluticasone propionate are unlikely.

A drug interaction study in healthy subjects has shown that ritonavir (a highly potent

cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor) can greatly increase fluticasone propionate plasma

concentrations, resulting in markedly reduced serum cortisol concentrations. During post-

marketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients

receiving intranasal or inhaled fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic

corticosteroid effects including Cushing's syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore,

concomitant use of fluticasone propionate and ritonavir should be avoided, unless the

potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects.

Studies have shown that other inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 produce negligible

(erythromycin) and minor (ketoconazole) increases in systemic exposure to fluticasone

propionate without notable reductions in serum cortisol concentrations. Nevertheless, care is

advised when co-administering potent cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole)

as there is potential for increased systemic exposure to fluticasone propionate.

Co-administration of ketoconazole and salmeterol resulted in a significant increase in plasma

salmeterol exposure (1.4-fold C

and 15-fold AUC). This increase in plasma salmeterol

may cause a prolongation of QTc interval (see Sections 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS AND

PRECAUTIONS FOR USE and 5.2 PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES).

4.6

FERTILITY, PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

Effects on fertility

Neither fluticasone propionate nor salmeterol xinafoate alone show significant effects on

fertility. Studies to detect such effects with co-administration have not been conducted.

Use in pregnancy

(Pregnancy Category B3)

There are limited data from clinical trials in pregnant women. However, extensive clinical

experience with drugs in this class has revealed no evidence of adverse effects on the

mother or foetus at relevant therapeutic doses of ICS. As with any medication, administration

during pregnancy should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother is greater

than any possible risk to the foetus.

An observational retrospective epidemiological cohort study utilising electronic health

records from the United Kingdom was conducted to evaluate the risk of major congenital

malformations (MCMs) following first trimester exposure to inhaled fluticasone propionate

alone and salmeterol-fluticasone propionate relative to non-fluticasone propionate containing

inhaled corticosteroids. No placebo comparator was included in this study.

Within the asthma cohort of 5362 first trimester inhaled corticosteroid-exposed pregnancies,

131 diagnosed MCMs were identified; 1612 (30%) were exposed to fluticasone propionate or

salmeterol-fluticasone propionate of which 42 diagnosed MCMs were identified. The

adjusted odds ratio for MCMs diagnosed by 1 year was 1.1 (95%CI: 0.5 – 2.3) for fluticasone

propionate exposed vs non-fluticasone propionate inhaled corticosteroid exposed women

with moderate asthma and 1.2 (95%CI: 0.7 – 2.0) for women with considerable to severe

asthma. No difference in the risk of MCMs was identified following first trimester exposure to

fluticasone propionate alone vs salmeterol-fluticasone propionate. Absolute risks of MCM

across the asthma severity strata ranged from 2.0 to 2.9 per 100 fluticasone propionate-

exposed pregnancies which is comparable to results from a study of 15,840 pregnancies

unexposed to asthma therapies in the General Practice Research Database (2.8 MCM

events per 100 pregnancies).

Results from the retrospective epidemiological study did not find an increased risk of MCMs

following exposure to fluticasone propionate when compared to other inhaled corticosteroids,

during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Reproductive toxicity studies in animals, either with single drug or in combination, revealed

the foetal effects expected at excessive systemic exposure levels of a potent beta-2-

adrenoceptor agonist and glucocorticosteroid – however these findings may not be relevant

to humans taking inhaled steroids and beta-2 agonist at the recommended dose.

Use in lactation

Fluticasone propionate and salmeterol concentrations in plasma after inhaled doses are very

low and therefore concentrations in human breast milk are likely to be correspondingly low.

Studies in lactating animals support this for salmeterol xinafoate, although after

subcutaneous administration of radiolabelled fluticasone propionate to lactating rats, levels

of radioactivity in milk were 3 to 7 times plasma levels. There are no data available for

human breast milk.

Administration during lactation should only be considered if the expected benefit to the

mother is greater than any possible risk to the child.

4.7

EFFECTS ON ABILITY TO DRIVE AND USE MACHINES

PAVTIDE is unlikely to produce an effect.

4.8

ADVERSE EFFECTS (UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS)

As PAVTIDE contains fluticasone propionate and salmeterol the type and severity of

adverse reactions associated with each of the compounds may be expected. There is no

evidence of additional adverse events following concurrent administration of the two

compounds.

Adverse events are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are

defined as: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥1/100 and <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1000 and

<1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 and <1/1000) and very rare (<1/10,000).

Clinical Trial Data

Infections and infestations

Common:

Candidiasis of mouth and throat, pneumonia (in COPD patients).

Such patients may find it helpful to rinse out their mouth with water after inhalation.

Symptomatic candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal therapy whilst still continuing

with the fluticasone propionate.

Rare:

Oesophageal candidiasis.

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity Reactions:

Uncommon:

Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions, dyspnoea.

Rare:

Anaphylactic reactions.

Endocrine disorders

Possible systemic effects include (see Section 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS AND

PRECAUTIONS FOR USE):

Uncommon:

Cataract.

Rare:

Glaucoma.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Uncommon:

Hyperglycaemia.

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon:

Anxiety, sleep disorders.

Rare:

Behavioural changes, including hyperactivity and irritability

(predominantly in children).

Nervous system disorders

Very common:

Headache (see Section 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS AND

PRECAUTIONS FOR USE).

Uncommon:

Tremor (see Section 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

FOR USE).

Cardiac disorders

Common:

Palpitations (see Section 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS AND

PRECAUTIONS FOR USE).

Uncommon:

Tachycardia, atrial fibrillation.

Rare:

Cardiac arrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia and

extrasystoles.

Peripheral vasodilation and a compensatory small increase in heart rate may occur in some

patients.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Common:

Hoarseness/dysphonia, throat irritation.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:

Contusions.

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Common:

Muscle cramps, arthralgia.

Postmarketing Data

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity reactions manifesting as:

Uncommon:

Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions.

Rare:

Angioedema (mainly facial and oropharyngeal oedema) and

respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea and/or bronchospasm), anaphylactic

reactions.

Endocrine disorders

Possible systemic effects include (see Section 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS AND

PRECAUTIONS FOR USE):

Rare:

Cushing’s syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression,

growth retardation in children and adolescents, decreased bone

mineral density.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Uncommon:

Hyperglycaemia.

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon:

Anxiety, sleep disorders.

Rare:

Behavioural changes, including hyperactivity and irritability

(predominantly in children).

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Rare:

Paradoxical bronchospasm (see Section 4.4 SPECIAL WARNINGS

AND PRECAUTIONS FOR USE)

Reporting suspected adverse effects

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after registration of the medicinal product is

important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product.

Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions at

www.tga.gov.au/reporting-problems.

4.9

OVERDOSE

The available information on overdose with PAVTIDE, fluticasone and/or salmeterol is given

below:

It is not recommended that patients receive higher than approved doses of PAVTIDE. It is

important to review therapy regularly and titrate down to the lowest dose at which effective

control of disease is maintained (see Section 4.2 DOSE AND METHOD OF

ADMINISTRATION).

Symptoms and Signs

The expected symptoms and signs of salmeterol overdosage are those typical of excessive

beta-2-adrenergic stimulation, including tremor, headache, tachycardia, increases in systolic

blood pressure, hypokalaemia and raised blood glucose levels.

Acute inhalation of fluticasone propionate doses in excess of those approved may lead to

temporary suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary–adrenal axis. This does not usually

require emergency action as normal adrenal function typically recovers within a few days.

If higher than approved doses of PAVTIDE are continued over prolonged periods, significant

adrenocortical suppression is possible. There have been very rare reports of acute adrenal

crisis, mainly occurring in children exposed to higher than approved doses over prolonged

periods (several months or years). Presenting symptoms are typically vague and may

include anorexia, abdominal pain, weight loss, tiredness, headache, nausea, vomiting,

decreased levels of consciousness, hypoglycaemia and seizures. Situations which could

potentially trigger acute adrenal crisis include exposure to trauma, surgery, infection or any

rapid reduction in the dosage of the inhaled fluticasone propionate component. Additional

systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress or elective

surgery.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for an overdose of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate. If

overdose occurs, the patient should be treated supportively with appropriate monitoring

necessary.

For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poisons Information Centre on

13 11 26 (Australia).

5

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1

PHARMACODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

Mechanism of action

PAVTIDE contains fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate which have differing

modes of action. Salmeterol provides symptomatic relief, while fluticasone propionate

improves lung function and prevents exacerbations of the condition. PAVTIDE can offer a

more convenient regimen for patients on concurrent long-acting beta-agonist and inhaled

corticosteroid therapy. The respective mechanisms of action of both drugs are discussed

below.

Fluticasone propionate:

Fluticasone propionate given by inhalation at recommended doses has potent glucocorticoid

activity in the airway. The potent anti-inflammatory action improves the symptomatic control

of asthma, allows reduction of other drugs, such as rescue bronchodilators, and may limit

the risk of decline in lung function over time. The low systemic bioavailability of fluticasone

propionate provides a better risk: benefit outcome without the adverse effects that

accompany systemically administered corticosteroids.

Salmeterol:

Salmeterol is a selective long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonist and at dosages of less

than 100 microgram twice daily has little measurable cardiovascular effect. Salmeterol

xinafoate is a racemate, the R-enantiomer being active.

The pharmacological properties of salmeterol offer a slower onset of action, but more

effective protection against histamine-induced bronchoconstriction and a longer duration of

bronchodilation (lasting for approximately 12 hours) than recommended doses of

conventional short-acting beta-2 agonists. The onset of effective bronchodilation (> 15%

improvement in FEV

) occurs within 10 to 30 minutes and peak effect occurs between 3 to 4

hours.

In vitro tests have shown salmeterol is a potent and long-lasting inhibitor of the release of

mast cell mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2, from human lung

fragments. In one study in man, salmeterol inhibits the early and late phase response to

inhaled allergen; the latter persisting for over 30 hours after a single dose when the

bronchodilator effect is no longer evident. Single dosing with salmeterol attenuates

bronchial hyperresponsiveness. These properties indicate that salmeterol has additional

non-bronchodilator activity, but the full clinical significance is not yet clear. The mechanism

is different from the anti-inflammatory effect of corticosteroids.

Clinical trials

Asthma

Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol ACCUHALER

Clinical trials have investigated the safety and efficacy data of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol at three dose strengths (100/50 micrograms, 250/50 airways disease

and asthma. Six studies of 12 or 28 week duration have been carried out in a total of 2080

patients (1671 adults, 152 adolescents and 257 children), of which 769 were treated with

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol.

Three studies used the 100/50 micrograms dose strength (338 patients), two the 250/50

micrograms dose strength (264 patients) and one the 500/50 micrograms dose strength (167

patients). All studies were of double blind, randomised, parallel group design, and aimed to

demonstrate superiority of the combination product over its constituent drugs at each dose

strength, or equivalence of the combination product compared to the two drugs taken

concurrently from separate inhalers (concurrent therapy).

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs. salmeterol alone or fluticasone propionate alone:

In two studies using the 100/50 micrograms and 250/50 micrograms doses, the primary

efficacy variables were probability of remaining in the study, mean change from baseline in

morning pre-dose FEV

at endpoint, and mean serial FEV

AUC at Week 1. Patients were

symptomatic and demonstrated room for improvement in lung function. Fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol was significantly more effective (p<0.001) than placebo or salmeterol

alone in all primary efficacy comparisons. In addition fluticasone propionate/salmeterol was

significantly more effective than fluticasone propionate alone in all primary efficacy

comparisons (p

0.007) except for probability of remaining in the study for the 100/50

micrograms dose (p=0.084). Effects of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol were maintained

over the treatment period. FEV

results measured over 12 hours after 1 week of treatment

or after 12 weeks of treatment were similar but higher than those seen after the first dose of

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol. Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol produced clinically

significant improvements in quality of life (>0.5 as assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life

Questionnaire) in both studies.

In a third study, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 500/50 micrograms was significantly more

effective than fluticasone propionate alone (p<0.001). Higher mean changes in morning PEF

were seen in the fluticasone propionate/salmeterol group for Weeks 1-12 (95% confidence

intervals for the treatment difference were -29 L/min to -12 L/min). As well as the marked

improvements in lung function seen with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, reductions in

rescue salbutamol use and an increase in the percentage of symptom-free days were seen.

Significant differences compared with placebo and with salmeterol alone or fluticasone

propionate alone were seen in most of these parameters. Improvements were noted over

the first week of dosing.

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs. concurrent therapy:

Four double-blind, double-dummy studies assessed clinical equivalence of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol with concurrent therapy with salmeterol and fluticasone propionate.

Three were conducted in symptomatic adults and adolescents and one in paediatric patients.

In all studies, large increases in mean morning PEF were seen over Weeks 1-12 in both

treatment groups. Improvements were already apparent over Week 1.

Results for the primary efficacy variable (mean morning PEF over Weeks 1-12 in the Intent-

to-Treat Population) met the criterion for clinical equivalence (90% confidence limits for the

difference between treatments contained within +15 L/min) in three of the four studies. In

one study, the data suggested fluticasone propionate/salmeterol had slightly greater efficacy

compared to concurrent administration of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate (difference -

9 L/min; 90% confidence limits –17, 0 L/min; 95% confidence limits –19, 2 L/min).

Both fluticasone propionate/salmeterol and concurrent therapy improved symptom scores,

decreased rescue salbutamol usage and increased the percentage of symptom free days

and nights. Effects of the two treatments appeared to be similar on these parameters with

statistical comparisons generally showing no clinically relevant differences between

treatments.

Clinic measures of FEV

were made at each clinic visit. Improvements seen at 2 weeks

were similar to those seen after 12 weeks treatment. In a 28-week study, efficacy, as

measured by FEV

, was maintained throughout the duration of treatment. Results were not

dependent on the type of pre-study corticosteroid used.

Safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs fluticasone propionate alone in

asthma:

Two multi-centre 26-week studies were conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs fluticasone propionate alone, one in adult and

adolescent subjects (AUSTRI trial), and the other in paediatric subjects 4-11 years of age

(VESTRI trial). Both studies enrolled subjects with a history of asthma-related hospitalisation

or asthma exacerbation in the previous year. 17% and 33% of enrolled subjects in AUSTRI

and VESTRI, respectively, had persistent asthma with a history of at least 2 asthma-related

hospitalisations or asthma exacerbations in the previous year. The primary objective of each

study was to determine whether the addition of LABA to ICS therapy (fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol) was non-inferior to ICS (fluticasone propionate) alone in terms of the

risk of serious asthma related events (asthma-related hospitalisation, endotracheal

intubation, and death). A secondary efficacy objective of these studies was to evaluate

whether ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol) was superior to ICS therapy alone

(fluticasone propionate) in terms of severe asthma exacerbation (defined as deterioration of

asthma requiring the use of systemic corticosteroids for at least 3 days or an in-patient

hospitalisation or emergency department visit due to asthma that required systemic

corticosteroids).

A total of 11,679 and 6,208 subjects were randomised and received treatment in the

AUSTRI and VESTRI trials, respectively. For the primary safety endpoint, non-inferiority was

achieved for both trials (see Table below).

Serious Asthma-Related Events in the 26-Week AUSTRI and VESTRI Trials:

AUSTRI

VESTRI

Fluticasone

propionate/

salmeterol

(n = 5,834)

Fluticasone

propionate

alone

(n = 5,845)

Fluticasone

propionate/

salmeterol

(n = 3,107)

Fluticasone

propionate

alone

(n = 3,101)

Composite endpoint

(Asthma-related

hospitalisation,

endotracheal

intubation, or death)

34 (0.6%)

33 (0.6%)

27 (0.9%)

21 (0.7%)

Fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol

/ Fluticasone

propionate Hazard

ratio (95% CI)

1.029

(0.638-1.662)

1.285

(0.726-2.272)

Death

Asthma-related

hospitalisation

If the resulting upper 95% CI estimate for the relative risk was less than 2.0, then non-

inferiority was concluded.

If the resulting upper 95% CI estimate for the relative risk was less than 2.675, then non-

inferiority was concluded.

For the secondary efficacy endpoint, reduction in time to first asthma exacerbation for

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol relative to fluticasone propionate was seen in both studies,

however only AUSTRI met statistical significance:

AUSTRI

VESTRI

Fluticasone

propionate/

salmeterol

(n = 5,834)

Fluticasone

propionate

alone

(n = 5,845)

Fluticasone

propionate/

salmeterol

(n = 3,107)

Fluticasone

propionate

alone

(n = 3,101)

Number of subjects

with an asthma

exacerbation

480 (8%)

597 (10%)

265 (9%)

309 (10%)

Fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol

/ Fluticasone

propionate Hazard

ratio (95% CI)

0.787

(0.698, 0.888)

0.859

(0.729, 1.012)

Salmeterol Multi-center Asthma Research Trial (SMART)

The Salmeterol Multi-center Asthma Research Trial (SMART) was a 28-week US study that

evaluated the safety of salmeterol compared to placebo added to usual therapy in adult and

adolescent subjects. Although there were no significant differences in the primary endpoint

of the combined number of respiratory-related deaths and respiratory-related life-threatening

experiences, the study showed a significant increase in asthma-related deaths in patients

receiving salmeterol (13 deaths out of 13,176 patients treated with salmeterol vs 3 deaths

out of 13,179 patients on placebo). The study was not designed to assess the impact of

concurrent inhaled corticosteroid use.

To evaluate the safety profile of salmeterol, a meta-analysis of 215 studies comprising

106,575 patients with over 39,000 patient-years exposure was performed. The meta-

analysis evaluated asthma-related hospitalisations, asthma-related deaths, asthma-related

intubations and all-cause death when salmeterol was used alone and when salmeterol was

used with an ICS. There was no evidence of increased risk for asthma-related

hospitalisations or asthma-related deaths in patients using salmeterol with an ICS as a fixed

dose combination product.

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol MDI

Two 12 week, double blind, double dummy, randomised, parallel group clinical studies were

performed in 1006 adult and adolescent patients aged

12 years. The first study compared

the 50/25 micrograms strength fluticasone propionate/salmeterol MDI 165 patients) with the

corresponding 100/50 micrograms ACCUHALER (167 patients), while the second study

compared the 250/25 micrograms strength MDI (176 patients) with the 500/50 micrograms

ACCUHALER (161 patients). The dosing regimen for the MDI is two inhalations twice daily

whilst the ACCUHALER is one inhalation twice daily, ensuring the total daily dose of each

active ingredient is the same for both formulations. Both studies also included a comparison

with CFC fluticasone propionate MDI alone, at the same fluticasone propionate dose as the

combination, to reaffirm the superiority of the combination over fluticasone propionate alone

despite the change in formulation. All patients had reversible obstructive airways disease

and were symptomatic on inhaled corticosteroids, with room for improvement in lung

function. No clinical trial was performed with the 125/25 micrograms MDI strength because

pharmaceutical and clinical pharmacology data have demonstrated dose proportionality

across the three strengths of the fluticasone propionate component.

The primary efficacy variable was change in mean morning PEF over weeks 1-12, and this

met the criterion for clinical equivalence between the MDI and ACCUHALER combination

formulations (95% confidence limits for the difference between treatments contained within

15 L/min) in both studies. Comparable results were also seen for other time points in both

studies, with almost all 95% confidence intervals falling within

15 L/min. In no cases were

the confidence intervals greater than

16 L/min. Large increases in mean PEF were seen

over weeks 1-12 in both the MDI and the ACCUHALER combination groups.

In both studies, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol MDI was significantly more effective than

fluticasone propionate MDI alone in change from baseline in mean morning PEF throughout

the treatment period. This was manifest as early as week 1 (p<0.001). Mean treatment

differences were greater than 15 L/min. These results demonstrate clinical superiority of the

MDI combination over the FP CFC formulation alone, reaffirming the superiority of the

combination over fluticasone propionate alone, despite the change in formulation. While a

statistical comparison of fluticasone/salmeterol ACCUHALER was not conducted, the

differences between these 2 treatment groups were of similar magnitude to those observed

for the combination MDI.

Both the fluticasone propionate/salmeterol MDI and ACCUHALER formulations improved

symptoms scores, decreased rescue salbutamol usage and increased the percentage of

symptom free days and nights. Effects of the two treatments on these parameters were

similar.

Initial Maintenance Therapy – Moderate Persistent Asthma

Moderate persistent asthma is characterised by daily symptoms over a prolonged period of

time or nocturnal asthma more than once a week, a peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) or

of 60-80% of predicted and a variability in PEFR or FEV

of > 30%.

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms vs FP 100 micrograms bd

The data of four randomised, double blind, controlled, parallel group studies, SAS30001

(n=168), SAS30003 (n=86), SAS30017 (n=150) and SAM40027 Stratum 1 Addendum

(n=404) were integrated to examine the safety and efficacy of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms bd as initial maintenance therapy over a 12 week

treatment period in subjects aged ≥ 12 years with moderate persistent asthma. The results

showed that the mean improvement from baseline in morning pre-dose PEF over Weeks 1-

12 and Endpoint (primary endpoint ─ defined as the mean of the last available 7 days of on-

treatment data for each subject) were significantly higher with fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms bd than with FP 100 micrograms bd (treatment

difference vs FP: 23.8 L/min and 24.0 L/min respectively, p<0.001).

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol was also superior for the secondary endpoints, including

pre-dose FEV

; serial FEV

; % of days with no asthma symptoms; % of nights with no

awakenings; and % of rescue free days. Additionally, a higher proportion of patients

achieved ‘Well controlled’ asthma over Weeks 5-12 with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol

100/50 micrograms bd vs FP 100 micrograms bd (46% vs 29%, respectively, odds ratio 2.04

in favour of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, p<0.001).

This integrated analysis demonstrated both statistical and clinical superiority of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms bd compared with FP 100 micrograms bd in

improving lung function, reducing symptoms and attaining asthma control.

Furthermore, one of the keys studies, SAM40027 Stratum 1 Addendum, demonstrated that

initial maintenance therapy with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol brought about significantly

more rapid asthma control compared with FP alone. Specifically, this study showed that in

the first twelve weeks of treatment, the time taken for 50% of subjects to achieve the first

week of ‘Well-controlled’ asthma was 16 days for fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 100/50

micrograms bd, compared to 30 days with FP 100 micrograms bd alone (p=0.003).

Subgroup analyses: Additional subgroup analyses were undertaken of all fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms bd studies in the target population to

explore/further define patients who were likely to benefit most from treatment with fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol as initial maintenance therapy. The greatest incremental benefit in the

percentage of subjects with ‘well-controlled’ asthma on fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs

FP alone was demonstrated in subjects exhibiting all three clinical features: daily symptoms,

daily use of rescue medication, moderate/severe airflow limitation (ie. FEV

≤ 80%). In this

population, 43% of subjects on fluticasone propionate/salmeterol achieved ‘well controlled’

asthma as compared with 23% on FP alone over the first 12 weeks of treatment. This

represents a 2.6-fold difference (95% confidence interval: 1.87, 3.62) in favour of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol, and is a greater margin of difference than previously demonstrated in

the overall data (integrated data: odds ratio 2.04).

In patients with all three stated baseline features, significant treatment differences were seen

between fluticasone propionate/salmeterol and FP alone for PEF, symptoms and rescue

use. Improvement in PEF was 26 L/min greater with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol than

with FP alone (95% CI 19.3, 32.6) and patients treated with fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol were twice as likely to be symptom-free than patients treated with FP

alone over the first 12 weeks of treatment (odds ratio fluticasone propionate/salmeterol /FP

2.05, 95% CI 1.54, 2.74, p< 0.001). Likewise, the fluticasone propionate/salmeterol group

had significantly more rescue-free days compared with FP alone (p< 0.001).

Additionally in this group of patients the time to first achieving ‘well controlled’ asthma was

significantly shorter with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol compared with FP alone (median

time to first week of ‘well controlled’ asthma was 9 days for fluticasone propionate/salmeterol

and 16 days for FP, p <0.001).

Dosage adjustment with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs FP

Two studies, SAS30040 (n=484) and SAM40027 Stratum 1 Addendum (n=404)

demonstrated fluticasone propionate/salmeterol to be a superior option to FP alone in two

situations, (i) dosing step-down once control has been achieved with fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol and (ii) dosing step-up where the patient failed to achieve control with

the initial doses of medication.

For patients who have achieved control with a maintenance dose of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 250/50 micrograms bd, SAS30040 demonstrated that stepping down

the dose to fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms bd is more effective than

removing the LABA component, and switching patients to FP 250µg bd. This study showed

PEF values to be maintained over 12 weeks after stepping down to fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 100/50 micrograms, but a decline in PEF values was noted with FP

250 micrograms during the same period (treatment difference of 12.9 L/min in favour of

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, p<0.001).

For patients in whom control was not achieved with an initial dose of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol or FP as initial maintenance therapy, SAM40027 Stratum 1

Addendum demonstrated the benefits of dosing step-up with fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol compared with FP alone. The study confirmed that subjects in the

fluticasone propionate/salmeterol group had 1.67 greater chance of achieving ‘Well-

controlled’ asthma at the same or lower ICS doses compared to FP alone (odds ratio 1.67,

p=0.006). The fact that more patients were achieving control at the earlier treatment steps

with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol indicated that, overall, control was achieved earlier in

the study with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol than with FP alone, highlighting the time

superiority of the combination.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Three randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials have investigated the safety and

efficacy of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol ACCUHALER in the treatment of patients with

COPD. The studies used two fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dose strengths (250/50

micrograms and 500/50 micrograms). All studies comprised four treatment arms: fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol, salmeterol, fluticasone propionate, placebo. Salmeterol is currently

registered for the treatment of COPD.

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs salmeterol alone: The primary efficacy variable for the

three studies was mean change in morning pre-dose FEV

. In the ITT analysis, a

statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint in favour of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol was seen across all three studies. For multiple measured secondary

endpoints, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 500/50 micrograms was superior by a clinically

significant degree only for dyspnoea vs salmeterol alone. In addition, fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol 250/50 micrograms was statistically significantly superior to salmeterol

for % days without use of reliever medication and % of nights without awakening.

Post-hoc subgroup analyses were performed for those patients with severe COPD

(FEV

<50% predicted normal). There were 1724 patients in the severe subgroup, of whom

415 received fluticasone propionate/salmeterol. A statistically significant treatment difference

in favour of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (both doses) was seen in the primary endpoint

in two of the three studies. The clinical significance of these results is uncertain. For

multiple measured secondary endpoints, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 500/50

micrograms produced a clinically significant improvement in breathlessness and a clinically

significant reduction in % of days without use of reliever medication (1 time per day)

compared with salmeterol alone.

5.2

PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES

There is no evidence in animal or human subjects that the administration of fluticasone

propionate and salmeterol together by the inhaled route affects the pharmacokinetics of

either component. For pharmacokinetic purposes therefore each component can be

considered separately.

Even though plasma levels of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol are very low, potential

interactions with other substrates and inhibitors of CYP 3A4 cannot be excluded.

Fluticasone propionate:

Following oral administration 87-100% of the dose is excreted in the faeces, up to 75% as

parent compound depending on the dose. There is a non-active major metabolite.

Following intravenous administration there is rapid plasma clearance suggestive of extensive

hepatic extraction. The plasma elimination half-life is approximately 3 hours. The volume of

distribution is approximately 250 litres. Doses delivered by the dry powder inhalers and

metered-dose inhalers may not have the same systemic bioavailability; however, there is no

difference in clinical efficacy between the inhalers in controlled studies.

The absolute bioavailability of fluticasone propionate for each of the available inhaler devices

has been estimated from within and between study comparisons of inhaled and intravenous

pharmacokinetic data based on AUC(0-infinity) data. In healthy adult subjects the absolute

bioavailability has been estimated for fluticasone propionate ACCUHALER (8%), fluticasone

propionate Diskhaler (9%) and fluticasone propionate Inhaler (10.9%) respectively. The

absolute bioavailability from fluticasone propionate/salmeterol ACCUHALER and Inhaler are

approximately 6%.

Salmeterol:

Salmeterol acts locally in the lung, therefore plasma levels are not predictive of therapeutic

effect. In addition, there are only limited data available on the pharmacokinetics of

salmeterol because of the technical difficulty of assaying very low plasma concentrations

(approximately 200 pg/mL or less) of the drug after inhaled dosing.

Following administration, salmeterol xinafoate is extensively bound (95-98%) to plasma

proteins. Elimination of radioactivity from plasma following oral administration of

radiolabelled salmeterol xinafoate is slow (mean t

is 67 hours). Excretion is predominantly

through the faeces and to a lesser extent urine. Aliphatic hydroxylation appears to be the

major route of metabolism in humans.

After regular dosing with salmeterol xinafoate, the xinafoate moiety, hydroxynaphthoic acid,

can be detected in the systemic circulation, reaching steady state concentrations of

approximately 100 ng/mL. These concentrations are up to 1000-fold lower than steady state

levels observed in toxicity studies and in longer-term regular dosing (more than 12 months)

trials in patients with airways obstruction, there have not been adverse effects attributable to

hydroxynaphthoic acid reported.

In a placebo-controlled, crossover drug interaction study in 20 healthy subjects, co-

administration of salmeterol (50 micrograms twice daily inhaled) and the CYP3A4 inhibitor

ketoconazole (400 mg once daily orally) for 7 days resulted in a significant increase in

plasma salmeterol exposure (1.4-fold C

and 15-fold AUC). There was no increase in

salmeterol accumulation with repeat dosing. Three subjects were withdrawn from salmeterol

and ketoconazole co-administration due to QTc prolongation or palpitations with sinus

tachycardia. The increase in the QTc interval observed with the co-administration of

salmeterol and ketoconazole compared with salmeterol and placebo administration was not

statistically significant. There were no clinically significant effects seen in heart rate or blood

potassium levels, which were the primary endpoints of the study (see Sections 4.4 SPECIAL

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS FOR USE and 4.5 INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER

MEDICINES AND OTHER FORMS OF INTERACTIONS).

5.3

PRECLINICAL SAFETY DATA

Fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate have been extensively evaluated in animal

toxicity tests. Significant toxicities occurred only at doses in excess of those recommended

for human use and were those expected for a potent beta-2-adrenoreceptor agonist and

glucocorticosteroid.

Co-administration of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol resulted in some cardiovascular

lesions not seen upon dosing with the individual drugs (mild atrial myocarditis and focal

coronary arteritis in rats and papillary muscle necrosis in dogs). However, these high dose

changes were not consistently observed across studies and are unlikely to be of clinical

relevance.

Co-administration did not modify other class-related toxicities in animals.

Genotoxicity

Neither fluticasone propionate nor salmeterol xinafoate showed evidence of mutagenic

potential when tested alone in a standard battery of genotoxicity assays. No studies

examining the potential interaction of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate to

cause genetic toxicity when co-administered have been conducted.

The non-CFC propellant, norflurane (HFA134a), has been shown to have no toxic effect at

very high vapour concentrations, far in excess of those likely to be experienced by patients,

in a wide range of animal species exposed daily for periods of two years.

Carcinogenicity

No studies on the carcinogenic potential of the combined formulation of fluticasone

propionate/salmeterol xinafoate have been conducted in animals. With fluticasone alone, no

evidence of a tumorigenic effect was observed in either a 2 year study in rats receiving

doses of fluticasone propionate up to 57 mg/kg/day by inhalation or in an 18 month study in

mice receiving oral doses of fluticasone propionate up to 1 mg/kg/day. With salmeterol

xinafoate alone, oral administration to mice at 0.2, 1.4 or 10 mg/kg/day for 18 months

resulted in the development of smooth muscle tumours (lieomyomas and possibly

liemyosarcomas) in the uterus. In rats, combined oral / inhalational administration for 24

months at total dose levels of 0.2, 0.7 and 2.6 mg/kg/day resulted in leiomyomas in the

suspensory ligament of the ovaries, as well as an increased incidence of benign pituitary

tumours. The smooth muscle tumours in both species are thought to result from chronic

stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors in these tissues, whereas the mechanism involved in the

development of the pituitary tumours is unknown.

6

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

LIST OF EXCIPIENTS

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER

Lactose monohydrate (which contains milk protein).

PAVTIDE MDI

Norflurane (HFA 134a) which is a CFC-free propellant.

6.2

INCOMPATIBILITIES

Incompatibilities were either not assessed or not identified as part of the registration of this

medicine.

6.3

SHELF LIFE

In Australia, information on the shelf life can be found on the public summary of the

Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The expiry date can be found on the

packaging.

6.4

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR STORAGE

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER should be stored in a dry place below 30

PAVTIDE MDI

PAVTIDE MDI should be stored below 30

C. Protect from frost and direct sunlight.

Replace the mouthpiece cover firmly and snap it into position.

As with most inhaled medications in pressurised canisters, the therapeutic effect of this

PAVTIDE MDI may decrease when the canister is cold. The canister should not be

punctured, broken or burnt even when apparently empty.

6.5

NATURE AND CONTENTS OF CONTAINER

PAVTIDE ACCUHALER

Moulded plastic device containing a foil strip with 28 or 60 regularly placed blisters each

containing a powder formulation of 100 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 50

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate).

Moulded plastic device containing a foil strip with 28 or 60 regularly placed blisters each

containing a powder formulation of 250 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 50

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate).

Moulded plastic device containing a foil strip with 28 or 60 regularly placed blisters each

containing a powder formulation of 500 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 50

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate).

PAVTIDE MDI

PAVTIDE 50/25 micrograms MDI delivers 50 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 25

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate) per inhalation. Packs of 120 metered doses.

PAVTIDE 125/25 micrograms MDI delivers 125 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 25

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate) per inhalation. Packs of 120 metered doses.

PAVTIDE 250/25 micrograms MDI delivers 250 micrograms of fluticasone propionate and 25

micrograms of salmeterol (as xinafoate) per inhalation. Packs of 120 metered doses.

PAVTIDE MDI is available with or without a counter (see Section 4.2 DOSE AND METHOD

OF ADMINISTRATION).

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR DISPOSAL

In Australia, any unused medicine or waste material should be disposed of by taking to your

local pharmacy.

6.7

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PAVTIDE

ACCUHALER

PAVTIDE

contain

active

ingredients

fluticasone

propionate and salmeterol (as xinafoate).

Fluticasone propionate

Chemical name

The chemical name of fluticasone propionate is S-

Fluoromethyl 6

-difluoro-11ß-hydroxy-16

-methyl-3-oxo-

-propionyloxy-androsta-1, 4-diene-17ß-carbothioate.

Molecular formula

Molecular weight

500.6

Chemical structure

Description

Fluticasone propionate is a white to off-white powder. It is

freely soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide,

sparingly soluble in acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate

and chloroform, slightly soluble in methanol and 95% ethanol,

and practically insoluble in water.

CAS number

80474-14-2

Salmeterol (as xinafoate)

Chemical name

The chemical name of salmeterol xinafoate is (±)-4-Hydroxy-

-[[[6-(4-phenylbutoxy)hexyl]amino]methyl]-m-xylene-

′-diol

1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate (salt).

Molecular formula

Molecular weight

603.8

Chemical structure

Description

Salmeterol xinafoate is a white to off-white crystalline powder.

It is freely soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol,

chloroform, and isopropanol, and sparingly soluble in water.

CAS number

94749-08-3

7

MEDICINE SCHEDULE (POISONS STANDARD)

Schedule 4 – Prescription Only Medicine

8

SPONSOR

GlaxoSmithKline Australia Pty Ltd

Level 4, 436 Johnston Street,

Abbotsford, Victoria, 3067

9

DATE OF FIRST APPROVAL

7 May 2014

10 DATE OF REVISION

12 April 2019

SUMMARY TABLE OF CHANGES

Section

Changed

Summary of new information

Added information about the composition and excipient of known effect

details clarified

New text on pharmaceutical dose form added

Added ocular safety information and subsection on Use in elderly

Added information on adverse event reporting

6.2, 6.3

and 6.6

New sections

PI reformatted, minor editorial and formatting changes

Version 5.0

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