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Doxatib

Main information

  • Trade name:
  • Doxatib 500 mg/g Powder for Use in Drinking Water for Pigs and Chickens
  • Available from:
  • Krka d.d., Novo Mesto
  • Pharmaceutical form:
  • Powder for use in drinking water
  • Prescription type:
  • POM-V - Prescription Only Medicine – Veterinarian
  • Medicine domain:
  • Animals
  • Medicine type:
  • Allopathic drug
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Documents

Localization

  • Available in:
  • Doxatib 500 mg/g Powder for Use in Drinking Water for Pigs and Chickens
    United Kingdom
  • Language:
  • English

Therapeutic information

  • Therapeutic group:
  • Chickens, Pigs
  • Therapeutic area:
  • Antimicrobial

Other information

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Status

  • Source:
  • VMD - Veterinary Medicines Directorate
  • Authorization status:
  • Authorized
  • Authorization number:
  • 01656/4115
  • Authorization date:
  • 08-09-2016
  • Last update:
  • 21-12-2016

Summary of Product characteristics

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Issued: September 2016

AN: 00803/2015

SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

1. NAME OF THE VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Doxatib 500 mg/g powder for use in drinking water for pigs and chickens (BE, BG,

CZ, DE, EE, ES, HR, HU, IE, LT, LV, NL, PL, PT, RO, SI, SK, UK)

Doxatib 433 mg/g powder for use in drinking water for pigs and chickens (FR)

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

1 g of powder contains:

Active substance:

Doxycycline hyclate 500 mg

(corresponding to 433 mg of doxycycline)

Excipients:

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Powder for use in drinking water.

Pale yellow to yellow powder.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Target species

Pigs and chickens (broilers, pullets, broiler breeders).

4.2 Indications for use, specifying the target species

Pigs: For the treatment of the clinical signs associated with porcine respiratory

disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae susceptible to doxycycline.

Chickens: Where clinical disease is present in the flock, to reduce mortality, morbidity,

and clinical signs and to reduce lesions due to Pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella

multocida or to reduce morbidity and lesions in respiratory infections caused by

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT).

4.3 Contraindications

Do not use in known cases of hypersensitivity to tetracyclines or to any of the

excipients.

Do not use in animals with an impaired liver function.

Do not use in animals with renal disorders.

4.4 Special warnings for each target species

None.

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Issued: September 2016

AN: 00803/2015

4.5 Special precautions for use

Special precautions for use in animals

Official, national and regional antimicrobial policies should be taken into account

when the product is used.

Use of the product deviating from the instructions given in the SPC may increase the

prevalence of bacteria resistant to doxycycline and may decrease the effectiveness

of treatment with other tetracyclines due to the potential for cross-resistance.

Due to likely variability (time, geographical) in susceptibility of bacteria for

doxycycline bacteriological sampling and susceptibility testing are recommended. In

particular susceptibility of A. pleuropneumoniae and O. rhinotracheale may differ

from country to country and even farm to farm. Use of the product should be based

on culture and sensitivity of micro-organisms from diseased cases on farm. If this is

not possible, therapy should be based on local (regional, farm level) epidemiological

information about susceptibility of the target bacteria.

As eradication of the target pathogens may not be achieved, medication should

therefore be combined with good management practices, e.g. good hygiene, proper

ventilation, no overstocking.

Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal

product to animals

People with known hypersensitivity to tetracyclines such as doxycycline should avoid

contact with the veterinary medicinal product.

Take measures to avoid producing dust when incorporating the product into water.

Avoid direct contact with skin and eyes when handling the product to prevent

sensitisation and contact dermatitis.

During preparation and administration of the medicated drinking water, skin and eye

contact with the product and inhalation of dust particles should be avoided. Wear

impermeable gloves (e.g. rubber or latex) and an appropriate dust mask (e.g.

disposable half-mask respirator conforming to European Standard EN149 or a non-

disposable respirator to European Standard EN140 with a filter to EN143) when

reconstituting or administering the product.

In the event of eye or skin contact, rinse the affected area with large amounts of

clean water and if irritation occurs, seek medical attention. Wash hands and

contaminated skin immediately after handling the product.

Do not smoke, eat or drink while handling the product.

If you develop symptoms following exposure such as skin rash, you should seek

medical advice and show this warning to the physician. Swelling of the face, lips or

eyes, or difficulty with breathing are more serious symptoms and require urgent

medical attention.

4.6 Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)

Tetracyclines may - in very rare cases - induce photosensitivity and allergic reactions.

If suspected adverse reactions occur, treatment should be discontinued.

4.7 Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay

Doxycycline has a low affinity for forming complexes with calcium and studies have

demonstrated that doxycycline scarcely affects skeleton formation.

In the absence of specific studies the use of the product is not recommended during

pregnancy or lactation.

Page 2 of 6

Issued: September 2016

AN: 00803/2015

4.8 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Do not combine with antibiotics that are bactericidal e.g. penicillins or cephalosporins.

Absorption of doxycycline can be decreased in the presence of high quantities of

calcium, iron, magnesium or aluminium in the diet. Do not administer concurrently

with antacids, kaolin and iron preparations.

It is advised that the interval between the administration of the product and

administration of other products containing polyvalent cations should be 1-2 hours

because the latter limit the absorption of tetracyclines.

Doxycycline increases the action of anticoagulants.

The solubility of the product is pH dependent and will precipitate if mixed in alkaline

solution.

Do not store the drinking water in metallic containers.

4.9 Amounts to be administered and administration route

To be administered orally via drinking water.

Pigs: the recommended dose is:

12.5 mg doxycycline hyclate (25 mg product) per kg body weight per day for 4

consecutive days.

If no improvement in clinical signs is seen within this time, the diagnosis should be

reviewed and treatment changed. In case of severe infections the medication period

may be prolonged for a maximum of 8 consecutive days as determined by the

attending veterinary surgeon.

Chickens: the recommended dose is:

10 mg doxycycline hyclate (20 mg product) per kg body weight per day for 3-4

consecutive days in case of infections caused by P. multocida and

20 mg doxycycline hyclate (40 mg product) per kg body weight per day for 3-4

consecutive days in case of infections caused by O. rhinotracheale.

Based on the dose to be used, and the number and weight of the animals to be

treated, the exact daily amount of product can be calculated. The following formula

can be used to calculate the concentration of the product in drinking water:

mg product / kg body

weight / day x Mean body weight of

animals to be treated

= mg

product/Litre

drinking

water Mean daily water consumption per animal (Litres)

To ensure a correct dosage body weight should be determined as accurately as

possible.

The uptake of medicated drinking water depends on the clinical condition of the

pigs/chickens. In order to obtain the correct dosage the concentration of doxycycline

has to be adjusted accordingly.

The use of suitably calibrated weighing equipment is recommended if part packs are

used. The daily amount is to be added to the drinking water such that all medication

will be consumed in 24 hours. Medicated drinking water should be replaced every 24

hours.

Page 3 of 6

Issued: September 2016

AN: 00803/2015

It is recommended to prepare a concentrated pre-solution - approximately 100 grams

product per litre drinking water - and to dilute this further to therapeutic

concentrations if required. Alternatively, the concentrated solution can be used in a

proportional water medicator.

Solubility of the product is pH dependent and it may precipitate if it is mixed in hard

alkaline drinking water. Use at minimum concentrations of 200 mg powder per litre

drinking water in areas with hard alkaline drinking water (hardness above 10.2 °d and

pH more than 8.1).

During the treatment period animals should not have access to other water sources

than the medicated water.

Water uptake should be monitored at frequent intervals during medication.

After the end of the medication period, the water supply system should be cleaned

appropriately to avoid intake of sub-therapeutic amounts of the active substance.

4.10 Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary

Overdoses up to 1.6 times the label recommended dose resulted in no clinical signs

that could be attributed to treatment. Poultry tolerate double overdoses of

doxycycline (40 mg/kg body weight) without any clinical effect.

4.11 Withdrawal period(s)

Pigs:

- Meat and offal: 4 days

Chickens:

- Meat and offal: 3 days (at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg b.w.).

- Meat and offal: 9 days (at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg b.w.).

- Eggs: Not authorised for use in laying birds producing eggs for human consumption.

Do not use within 4 weeks of onset of the laying period.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterial for systemic use, Tetracyclines.

ATCvet code: QJ01AA02

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Doxycycline belongs to the group of the tetracycline antibiotics. These antibiotics

have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, sharing the same basic structure of

polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide.

Doxycycline is primarily a bacteriostatic drug. It exerts its action by inhibiting the

protein synthesis of the bacterial cell. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis results

in disturbance of all functions necessary for the life of bacteria. In particular, cell-

division and the formation of the cell wall are impaired.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, active against a large number of Gram-

positive and Gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms and

Mycoplasmas.

Page 4 of 6

Issued: September 2016

AN: 00803/2015

For Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale results demonstrate a great variation from high

to low susceptibility, depending on the geographical region where isolates came from.

In pig pathogens resistance against doxycycline may also vary; in particular

susceptibility figures of A. pleuropneumoniae may differ from country to country and

even farm to farm.

Four resistance mechanisms acquired by microorganisms against tetracyclines in

general have been reported: Decreased accumulation of tetracyclines (decreased

permeability of the bacterial cell wall and active efflux), protein protection of the

bacterial ribosome, enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic and rRNA mutations

(preventing the tetracycline binding to ribosome). Tetracycline resistance is usually

acquired by means of plasmids or other mobile elements (e.g. conjugative

transposons). Cross resistance between tetracyclines has also been described. Due

to the greater liposolubility and greater facility to pass through cell membranes (in

comparison to tetracycline), doxycycline retains a certain degree of efficacy against

microorganisms with acquired resistance to tetracyclines.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic particulars

Doxycycline is absorbed in the stomach and the first part of the duodenum.

Compared to the older tetracyclines the absorption of doxycycline is less affected by

the presence of bivalent cations in food. Bioavailability in non-fasted pigs is

approximately 21%.

Following oral administration at a dose of 12.8 mg/kg body weight, steady state

concentrations during medication range between a C

min of 0.40 μg/ml in the early

morning to a C

max of 0.87 μg/ml in the late afternoon in pigs.

Following administration of doxycycline hyclate at an actual dose of 21 mg/kg body

weight to chickens mean plasma concentrations above 1 μg/ml were reached within 6

hours and lasted for 6 hours after cessation of medication. From 24 h up to 96 h after

start of treatment the doxycycline plasma concentrations exceeded 2 μg/ml.

Following administration of doxycycline hyclate at an actual dose of 10 mg/kg body

weight steady state plasma concentrations ranged from 0.75 to 0.93 μg/g between

12 and 96 hours after start of medication.

Because doxycycline is highly lipid soluble, it has a good tissue penetration.

Respiratory tract tissue: plasma ratios of 1.3 (healthy lungs), 1.9 (pneumonic lungs)

and 2.3 (nasal mucosa) have been reported for doxycycline. Plasma protein binding

is high (over 90%).

Doxycycline is scarcely metabolised. Doxycycline is primarily excreted with the

faeces.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Tartaric acid

6.2 Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this product must not be mixed with other

veterinary medicinal products.

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Issued: September 2016

AN: 00803/2015

6.3 Shelf life

Shelf life of the veterinary medicinal product as packaged for sale: 2 years

Shelf life after first opening the immediate packaging: 1 year

Shelf life after dilution or reconstitution according to directions: 24 hours

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store below 30 C.

Store in the original package.

Keep the bag tightly closed after first opening in order to protect from moisture.

Once opened, the medicinal product should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

6.5 Nature and composition of immediate packaging

Alu triplex (PET/Al/PE) bags.

Alu quadriplex (PET/Al/PET/PE) bags.

Pack sizes of 100 g, 1 kg and 5 kg.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for the disposal of unused veterinary medicinal

product or waste materials derived from the use of such products

Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such

veterinary medicinal product should be disposed of in accordance with local

requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Krka, d.d., Novo mesto

Šmarješka cesta 6

8501 Novo mesto

Slovenia

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER

Vm 01656/4115

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION

08 September 2016

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

September 2016

Approved: 08/09/2016

Page 6 of 6

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