Metoprolol succinate (Ph. Eur.) 23.75 mg, 47.5 mg, 95 mg and 190 mg
AFT-METOPROLOL CR tablets 23.75 mg are white, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablets
scored on both sides. Size 9 mm x 5 mm.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR tablets 47.5 mg are white, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablets scored
on both sides. Size 11 mm x 6 mm.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR tablets 95 mg are white, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablets scored
on both sides. Size 16 mm x 8 mm.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR tablets 190 mg are white, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablets scored
on both sides. Size 19 mm x 10 mm.
Metoprolol is a ß
-selective ß-blocker without significant-membrane stabilizing effect or
partial agonist activity.
Metoprolol reduces or inhibits the agonistic effect of catecholamines on the heart (which are
released during physical and mental stress). This means that the usual increase in heart
rate, cardiac output, cardiac contractility and blood pressure, produced by the acute increase
in catecholamines, is reduced by metoprolol. During high endogenous adrenaline levels
metoprolol interferes much less with blood pressure control than non-selective ß-blockers.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR gives a smoothed plasma concentration time and effect profile (ß
blockade) over 24 hours when compared to an immediate release ß
-selective blocker tablet
AFT-METOPROLOL CR, when required to be used in combination with a ß
-agonist, may be
given to patients with symptoms of obstructive pulmonary disease. AFT-METOPROLOL CR
when given together with a ß
-agonist in therapeutic doses interferes less than non-selective
ß-blockers with the ß
AFT-METOPROLOL CR has less effect on insulin release, carbohydrate metabolism and
cardiovascular response to hypoglycaemia than do non-selective ß-blockers.
Metoprolol may cause a slight increase in blood triglycerides, a decrease in blood free fatty
acids and sometimes a small decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL) fraction,
although less than that observed following non-selective ß-blockers. A long term study did
show a significant reduction in total serum cholesterol levels.
Quality of life is maintained or improved during treatment with metoprolol including for
patients with chronic heart failure or post myocardial infarction.
Effect in hypertension
AFT-METOPROLOL CR lowers elevated standing and supine blood pressure. A short
duration (a few hours) and clinically insignificant increase in peripheral resistance may be
observed after the institution of metoprolol treatment. During long-term treatment a reduction
in total peripheral resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy may occur and improved left
ventricular diastolic function and left ventricular filling.
A reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in men with mild to moderate
cardiovascular death, to reduce the risk for fatal and non-fatal infarction and for stroke.
Effect on angina pectoris
Metoprolol has been shown to reduce the frequency, duration and severity of both angina
attacks and silent ischemic episodes and to increase the physical working capacity in
patients with angina pectoris.
Effect in chronic heart failure
In patients with symptoms of heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) II-IV) and
decreased ejection fraction (≤0.40) metoprolol, when added to standard therapy, has been
shown to improve survival and to reduce the number of hospitalisations due to worsening
heart failure. In addition, metoprolol therapy has increased ejection fraction, reduced left
ventricular end systolic and end diastolic volumes, improved NYHA functional class and
improved quality of life.
Effect on cardiac rhythm
fibrillation, and in the presence of ventricular extrasystoles inhibits the cardiac effects of
increased sympathetic activity leading to decreased automaticity in the pacemaker cells and
reduction of supraventricular conduction velocity.
Effect on myocardial infarction
Metoprolol reduces the risk of sudden death in patients with suspected or confirmed
myocardial infarction. In high risk patients with diabetes mellitus or previous cardiovascular
disease there is a reduction in mortality.
Metoprolol has also been shown to reduce the risk for non-fatal myocardial infarction and to
reduce the incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction. There is a reduction in chest pain
during the acute infarction phase due to the anti-ischemic effects of metoprolol.
Effect on hyperthyroidism
Metoprolol can reduce the clinical effects of hyperthyroidism.
Effect on heart disorders with palpitations
AFT-METOPROLOL CR is effective in reducing palpitations and improving the patient's
Effect on migraine
AFT-METOPROLOL CR is suitable for prophylactic treatment of migraine.
Absorption and distribution
Metoprolol is completely absorbed after oral administration. Due to extensive first-pass
metabolism the systemic bioavailability of metoprolol from a single oral dose is approximately
50%. Bioavailability is reduced by about 20-30% for the controlled release preparation
compared to the conventional tablets. The heart rate is the same as with conventional
Plasma protein binding of metoprolol is about 5-10%. Volume of distribution of 5.6 L/kg.
with a polymer
concentration over a 24 hour dose interval. There is consequently much less variation in
conventional, immediate release tablet. Release rate is independent of physiological factors
such as pH, food and peristalsis.
Metabolism and elimination
Metoprolol undergoes oxidative metabolism in the liver primarily by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme.
Metabolites are inactive. The fraction excreted unchanged is usually about 5% and up to
30% in isolated cases.
Mean elimination half-life of metoprolol in plasma is 3.5 hours (range1-9 hours). Clearance
rate is approximately 1 litre/minute.
Pharmacokinetics of metoprolol are not effected by age.
Renal impairment does not effect the systemic bioavailability and elimination of metoprolol.
However in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 5 mL/minute,
significant accumulation of metabolites was observed.
Decreased liver function has little effect on metoprolol pharmacokinetics. Bioavailability
increases and total clearance may be reduced in patients with severe liver cirrhosis and a
approximately 0.3 litres/minute and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)
values of up to 6 times higher than in healthy subjects.
Hypertension. To reduce blood pressure and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and
coronary mortality (including sudden death), and morbidity.
Symptomatic mild to severe chronic heart failure as an adjunct to other heart failure
therapy to: increase survival, reduce hospitalisation, improve left ventricular function,
improve New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and improve Quality of Life.
Cardiac arrhythmias, especially supraventricular tachycardia, reduction of ventricular rate
in atrial fibrillation and ventricular extrasystoles.
Maintenance treatment after myocardial infarction
Functional heart disorder with palpitations.
Dosage and Administration
Dosage should always be adjusted to the patient's individual requirements.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR is recommended for once daily treatment, should be taken at the
same time of the day with regard to food and is preferably taken together with the morning
swallowed with liquid and should not be chewed or crushed.
The following dosage recommendations may be taken as a guide:
metoprolol given once daily. In patients not responding to 47.5 mg the dose can be increased
to 95-190 mg once daily or combined with other antihypertensive agents.
Long-term antihypertensive treatment with metoprolol in daily doses of 95-190 mg has been
shown to reduce total mortality, including sudden cardiovascular death, stroke and coronary
events in hypertensive patients.
The recommended dose is 95-190 mg daily given as a single dose in the morning. AFT-
METOPROLOL CR can be combined with other antianginal agents if needed.
Chronic Heart Failure
The dose of AFT-METOPROLOL CR should be adjusted in individual patients with chronic
heart failure stabilised on other heart failure treatment. A recommended initial dose during
the first two weeks is a 23.75 mg tablet once daily. It is recommended that patients with
NYHA functional classes III-IV begin with half a 23.75 mg tablet once daily for the first week.
It is recommended that the dose then be doubled every second week up to a maximum
target dose of 190 mg AFT-METOPROLOL CR once daily (or to the highest tolerated dose).
During long-term treatment the aim should be to reach 190 mg AFT-METOPROLOL CR
once daily (or the highest tolerated dose).
medication may be necessary in cases of hypotension. However initial hypotension does not
necessarily mean that the dose cannot be tolerated in chronic treatment but the patient
should be stabilized at the lower dose first.
95-190 mg daily, given as a single dose once daily.
Treatment in the acute stage
After symptoms indicating myocardial infarction, treatment with metoprolol administered
intravenously should be initiated as soon as possible. Such treatment should be initiated in a
coronary care or similar unit immediately after the patient's haemodynamic condition has
stabilised. Depending on the haemodynamic status of the patient (ECG, blood pressure,
heart rate), three 5 mg bolus injections should be given, at 2 minute intervals.
In patients who tolerate the full intravenous dose (15 mg), AFT-METOPROLOL CR tablets
47.5 mg four times daily should be started 15 minutes after the last intravenous injection and
be continued for 24 hours. Followed by AFT-METOPROLOL CR 95 mg twice daily for a
further 24 hours.
Patients who do not tolerate the full intravenous (15 mg) dose should have their oral
treatment initiated with caution starting with a lower dose.
Maintenance treatment after myocardial infarction
Long-term oral treatment with metoprolol-CR 190 mg once daily has been shown to reduce
the risk of death (including sudden death) and reinfarction (also in patients with diabetes
Functional heart disorder with palpitations
The recommended dosage is 95 mg once daily. If necessary, the dose may be increased to
The recommended dosage is 95-190 mg once daily.
95-190 mg daily, given as a single dose in the morning. If necessary, the dose may be
Impaired Renal Function
Dose adjustment is not required in patients with impaired renal function.
Impaired Hepatic Function
Dose adjustment is not normally needed in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis although a
reduction in dose should be considered when there are signs of serious impairment of liver
function (e.g. shunt-operated patients).
Dose adjustment is not needed.
There is limited experience with metoprolol treatment in children.
Bronchial asthma or other obstructive lung disorders.
Grade 2 and 3 A-V block and intranodal A-V block.
hypoperfusion or hypotension), and patients with continuous or intermittent inotropic
therapy acting through ß-receptor agonism.
Marked clinically relevant sinus bradycardia.
Severe peripheral arterial circulatory disorder.
Metoprolol should not be given to patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction as
long as the heart rate is <45 beats/minute, the P-Q interval is > 0.24 seconds or the
systolic blood pressure is <100 mmHg.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to
other ß–blockers or any of the tablet excipients.
Warnings and Precautions
Intravenous administration of calcium antagonists of the verapamil-type should not be given
to patients treated with ß-blockers.
conventional tablet formulations of ß
The risk of interfering with carbohydrate metabolism or masking hypoglycaemia is likely to be
less with AFT-METOPROLOL CR than with conventional tablet formulations of ß
blockers and much less than with non-selective ß-blockers.
aggravated (possibly leading to A-V block). If the patient develops increasing bradycardia,
AFT-METOPROLOL CR should be given in lower doses or gradually withdrawn.
AFT-METOPROLOL CR may aggravate the symptoms of peripheral arterial circulatory
disorders, mainly due to its blood pressure lowering effect.
Where AFT-METOPROLOL CR is prescribed for a patient known to be suffering from
phaeochromocytoma, an alpha-blocker should be co-administered.
It is not recommended to stop ß-blocker treatment in patients undergoing surgery but the
anaesthetist should be informed
Abrupt withdrawal of ß-blockade is hazardous especially in high risk patients, and should not
be done. If discontinuation of AFT-METOPROLOL CR is required, this should preferably be
done gradually over at least two weeks when the dose is halved in each step down to the
final step when a whole 23.75 mg tablet is reduced to half a tablet. Slower withdrawal rate is
recommended if symptoms occur. Sudden withdrawal of ß-blockade may aggravate chronic
heart failure and increases the risk for myocardial infarction and sudden death
In patients taking ß-blockers anaphylactic shock assumes a more severe form.
Use in pregnancy [Category C]
AFT-METOPROLOL CR should not be given during pregnancy and lactation unless its use is
considered essential. Beta-blockers may cause side effects (e.g. bradycardia) in the foetus,
newborn and breast-fed infant.
Use in lactation
At normal therapeutic doses, the amount of metoprolol ingested from breast milk is in general
minimal and insufficient to cause ß-blockade in the infant.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Since occasional dizziness or fatigue may occur, patients should know how they react to
AFT-METOPROLOL CR before driving or using machines.
The following adverse events have been reported mostly with conventional metoprolol
(metoprolol tartrate). In many cases a relationship to treatment with metoprolol has not been
Common: Bradycardia, postural disorders (very rarely with syncope). Cold hands and feet,
Uncommon: Deterioration of heart failure symptoms, cardiogenic shock in patients with
acute myocardial infarction, first degree heart block, oedema, precordial pain.
Rare: Disturbances of cardiac conduction, cardiac arrhythmias.
Very rare: Gangrene in patients with pre-existing severe peripheral circulatory disorders.
Central Nervous System
Very common: Fatigue
Common: Dizziness, headache.
Uncommon: Paraesthesiae, muscle cramps.
Common: Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation.
Rare: Dry mouth
Very rare: Thrombocytopenia
Rare: Liver function test abnormalities
Very rare: Hepatitis
Uncommon: Weight gain
Very rare: Arthralgia
Uncommon: Depression, impaired concentration, somnolence or insomnia, nightmares
Rare: Nervousness, anxiety, impotence and/or sexual dysfunction.
Very rare: Amnesia and/or memory impairment, confusion, hallucinations.
Common: Dyspnoea on exertion.
Rare: Disturbances of vision, dry and/or irritated eyes, conjunctivitis
Very rare: Tinnitus, taste disturbances
Uncommon: Rash (in the form of urticaria psoriasiform and dystrophic skin lesions),
Rare: Loss of hair
Very rare: Photosensitivity reactions, aggravated psoriasis.
Definition of frequencies:
very common: ≥10%
common: 1 - 9.9%,
uncommon: 0.1 - 0.9%
rare: 0.01 - 0.09%
very rare: <0.01%
Metoprolol is a metabolic substrate for the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6. Potent
inhibitors of the CYP2D6 enzyme such as. antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, histamine-2-
receptor antagonists, antidepressants, antipsychotics or COX-2 inhibitors may therefore
increase the plasma concentration of metoprolol.
The plasma concentration of metoprolol is lowered by rifampicin and may be raised by
alcohol and hydralazine.
Patients receiving concomitant treatment with sympathetic ganglion blocking agents, other ß-
blockers (i.e. eye drops) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors should be kept under close
If a patient is treated with clonidine and metoprolol concurrently, and clonidine treatment is to
be discontinued, metoprolol should be stopped several days before clonidine is withdrawn.
Rebound hypertension that can follow withdrawal of clonidine may be increased in patients
receiving concurrent ß-blocker treatment.
Increased negative inotropic and chronotropic effects may occur when metoprolol is given
together with calcium antagonists of the verapamil and diltiazem type. Patients treated with
ß-blockers,should not be given calcium antagonists of the verapamil type parenterally.
and negative dromotropic
antiarrythmic agents (of the quinidine type and amiodarone).
Both digitalis glycosides and ß blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart
rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.
Some inhalation anaesthetics may enhance the cardiodepressant effect of ß-blockers.
Concomitant treatment with indomethacin or other prostaglandin synthetase inhibiting agents
may decrease the antihypertensive effect of ß-blockers.
Under certain conditions, cardioselective ß-blockers interfere much less with blood pressure
control than non-selective ß-blockers when adrenaline is administered to patients treated
The dosages of oral antidiabetics may have to be readjusted in patients receiving ß-blockers.
Potential signs and symptoms associated with overdosage with metoprolol are: severe
cardiac arrest, bronchospasm, impairment of consciousness and/or coma, nausea, vomiting
Concomitant ingestion of alcohol, antihypertensives, quinidine or barbiturates may aggravate
the patients condition.
The first symptoms of overdosage may be observed 20 minutes to 2 hours after ingestion.
There is no specific antidote.
On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol, the following general measures
should be employed:
Elimination of the Drug: Induction of vomiting or gastric lavage should be performed.
Bradycardia: Atropine should be administered. If there is no response to vagal blockade,
isoproterenol should be administered cautiously.
Hypotension: A vasopressor should be administered, e.g., levarterenol or dopamine.
Cardiac Failure: A digitalis glycoside and diuretic should be administered. In shock resulting
glucagon may be considered.
Protect from light and moisture. Keep out of reach of children. Store below 25 °C.
All strengths of AFT-METOPROLOL CR tablets are available in blister packs containing 30,
90, and 100 tablets and HDPE bottles containing 30 tablets.
microcrystalline cellulose, glycerol, maize starch, magnesium stearate, stearic acid and
titanium dioxide (E 171).
Name and Address
AFT Pharmaceuticals Ltd
PO Box 33-203
Ph: (09) 488-0232
Fax: (09) 488-0234
Date of Preparation
23 June 2016