ADRENALINE ACID TARTRATE INJECTION
1:1 000 (1 mg/mL)
Adrenaline injection contains no antimicrobial agent. It should be used only once and any
residue discarded. It is a clear, colourless solution and should not be used if it is coloured.
Adrenaline acid tartrate equivalent to adrenaline 1:1000 (1 mg/1 mL) with sodium metabisulfite
and sodium chloride in Water for Injections BP; Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid is used
for pH adjustment, pH 2.8 to 3.6.
Adrenaline acts on both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors of tissues innervated by
sympathetic nerves, except the sweat glands and arteries of the face. It is the most potent
alpha receptor activator. Adrenaline stimulates the heart to increased output; raises the
mobilises liver glycogen, resulting in hyperglycaemia and possibly glycosuria.
Parentally administered adrenaline has a rapid onset and short duration of action. The
circulating drug is metabolised by the liver and other tissues. The majority is taken up and
metabolised by sympathetic nerve endings. Adrenaline is excreted in the urine, mainly in the
form of metabolites.
Adrenaline crosses the placenta but not the blood-brain barrier. It is also distributed into breast
milk (see USE IN PREGNANCY and USE IN LACTATION).
Adrenaline 1:10,000 is used as an adjunct in the management of cardiac arrest.
Adrenaline 1:1,000 is the drug of choice in the emergency treatment of acute severe
anaphylactic reactions due to insect bites, drugs and other allergens. It may also be used for
the symptomatic relief of respiratory distress due to bronchospasm.
Dosage and Administration
The 1:1,000 (1 mg/1 mL) injection is preferably administered subcutaneously. It may also be
administered intramuscularly but not in the buttocks.
In emergency situations, adrenaline may be injected very slowly intravenously but only as the
dilute solution 1:10,000.
Adrenaline injection contains no antimicrobial agent. It should be used only once and any
residue discarded. Adrenaline injection should not be used if it is coloured.
The recommended dose is 1 mg intravenously, using 10 mL of the 1:10,000 solution. This
may be repeated every 3-5 minutes. If given through a peripheral line, each dose should be
followed by a flush of 20 mL of IV fluid to ensure delivery of the drug to the central compartment.
Intracardiac administration is no longer recommended.
The recommended dose is 10 micrograms (0.1 mL of the 1:10,000 solution) per kg bodyweight
administered intravenously. This may be repeated every 3-5 minutes.
Severe Anaphylaxis or Asthma
The usual initial dose is 100 to 500 microgram (0.1 to 0.5 mL of the 1:1,000 solution) SC or IM.
SC doses may be repeated at 20 minute to 4 hour intervals depending on the response of the
patient and the severity of the condition.
In severe anaphylactic shock, slow and cautious IV administration may be necessary to ensure
absorption of the drug. A dose of 100 to 250 microgram (1 to 2.5 mL of the 1:10,000 solution)
may be administered. Alternatively 25 to 50 microgram (0.25 to 0.5 mL of the 1:10,000
solution) may be given IV every 5 to 15 minutes following an initial dose of 500 microgram SC
10 microgram (0.01 mL of 1:1,000 solution) per kg body weight SC, repeated if necessary at
intervals of 20 minutes to 4 hours depending on the response of the patient and the severity
of the condition. Single paediatric doses should not exceed 500 microgram.
Known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines
Shock (other than anaphylactic shock)
Cardiac dilatation and coronary insufficiency
Ischaemic heart disease
Narrow angle (congestive) glaucoma
Organic brain damage
During general anaesthesia with halogenated hydrocarbons or cyclopropane
With local anaesthesia in fingers, toes, ears, nose or genitalia - there is a danger of
vasoconstriction producing sloughing of tissues in these areas.
Labour - it may delay the second stage by inhibiting spontaneous or oxytocin-induced
contractions of the pregnant human uterus.
Conditions in which vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated e.g. thyrotoxicosis.
In obstetrics when maternal blood pressure is in excess of 130/80 mmHg.
(See also INTERACTIONS)
Warnings and Precautions
Other beta-agonist sympathomimetics
sympathomimetic agent to avoid additive effects.
Use with extreme caution in the elderly, and in patients with cardiovascular disease,
hypertension, chronic lung disease, angina pectoris, prostatic hypertrophy, psychoneurosis or
Use with extreme caution in patients with long standing bronchial asthma and emphysema
who have developed degenerative heart disease. Anginal pain may be induced when coronary
insufficiency is present. Syncope has occurred following administration to asthmatic children.
In patients with parkinsonian syndrome the drug increases rigidity and tremor.
Concurrent use with cyclopropane, halogenated hydrocarbon or similar volatile anaesthetics
may produce fatal ventricular arrhythmias.
A greater increase may be produced in heart rate, blood glucose, lactate, gycerol and free fatty
acids when adrenaline is administered to diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy than in
diabetics without neuropathy.
When adrenaline is used for circulatory support, correction of hypervolaemia, metabolic
acidosis, and hypoxia or hypercapnia should be carried out beforehand or concomitantly.
This product contains sodium metabisulfite, which may cause allergic reactions in susceptible
individuals. The possibility of an allergic reaction to sodium metabisulfite should be considered
in asthmatic patients who show paradoxical worsening of their condition following use of the
Inter-arterial administration must be avoided as marked vasoconstriction may result in
Local ischaemic necrosis can occur from repeated injections in one site.
Use in Pregnancy
Adrenaline has been administered to a large number of pregnant women and women of
childbearing age without any proven increase in the frequency of malformations or other direct
or indirect harmful effects on the fetus having been observed.
However, the use of adrenaline during labour is contraindicated because it may delay the
second stage by inhibiting spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions of the pregnant
Use in Lactation
Adrenaline is excreted in the breast milk. The use of adrenaline in breast-feeding women is
therefore not recommended.
Adrenaline may cause reactions such as fear, anxiety, tenseness, restlessness, disorientation,
impaired memory, confusion, irritability, hallucinations and psychotic states. Headache,
weakness, dizziness, anorexia, nausea and vomiting and difficulty in micturition with urinary
retention may also occur.
hyperglycaemia, sweating, hypersalivation, cold extremities and insomnia have also been
Adrenaline causes E.C.G. changes including a decrease in T-wave amplitude in all leads in
Palpitations, tachycardia (sometimes with anginal pain) and cardiac arrhythmias may also
occur along with hypertension which in some instances may induce reflex bradycardia as can
vasodilation with flushing and hypotension. Ventricular fibrillation may occur and severe
hypertension may lead to cerebral haemorrhage and pulmonary oedema.
Overdosage or inadvertent IV injection of usual subcutaneous doses of adrenaline may cause
hypertension. Cerebrovascular or other haemorrhage and hemiplegia may result, especially
in geriatric patients. Inadvertent IV injection of adrenaline has also been reported to have
caused convulsions, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure with anuria.
Repeated injections of adrenaline can cause necrosis as a result of vascular constriction at the
injection site. Tissue necrosis may also occur in the extremities, kidneys and liver.
Prolonged use or overdosage of adrenaline can result in severe metabolic acidosis.
adrenaline and following topical aerosol application.
Gas gangrene which can be fatal has been reported following intramuscular injection of
adrenaline into the buttock or thigh. This appears to have been due to clostridium organisms
on the skin being deposited into muscle tissue during injection, with the vasoconstrictor
High doses may result in ventricular arrhythmias.
Rigidity and tremor may be exacerbated in patients with Parkinsonism.
Syncopal episodes have been reported in children.
Psychiatric disorders may be exacerbated.
Other Sympathomimetic Agents
Adrenaline should not be administered concomitantly with other sympathomimetic agents
because of the possibility of additive effects and increased toxicity.
Rapidly Acting Vasodilators
These can counteract the marked pressor effects of adrenaline.
Administration of adrenaline in patients receiving cyclopropane, halogenated hydrocarbon or
similar volatile general anaesthetics that increase cardiac irritability and seem to sensitise the
contractions, tachycardia or fibrillation and acute pulmonary oedema if hypoxia is present.
Adrenaline should not be used in patients receiving high dosage of other drugs, eg. quinidine,
digoxin and other cardiac glycosides, that can sensitise the heart to arrhythmias.
Special care is advisable in patients receiving antihypertensive therapy as severe hypertension
The administration of adrenaline to patients receiving alpha blockers may result in both
hypotension and cardiac-accelerating effects.
The administration of adrenaline to patients receiving non-selective beta blockers
(eg. propranolol) may result in severe hypotension, followed by a reflex bradycardia, due to
stimulation of adrenergic receptors.
CNS and Other Drugs
Tricyclic antidepressants, some antidepressants, some antihistamines and thyroid hormones
may potentiate the effects of adrenaline, especially on heart rhythm and rate.
Patients on MAOIs should not receive sympathomimetic treatment.
Drugs Causing Potassium Loss
The hypokalaemic effect of adrenaline may be potentiated by other drugs that cause potassium
theophylline; patients receiving high doses of beta2-adrenergic agonists concomitantly should
have their plasma-potassium concentration monitored.
Adrenaline induced hyperglycaemia may lead to loss of blood sugar control in diabetic patients
treated with hypoglycaemic agents.
cerebrovascular haemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias leading to ventricular fibrillation and death.
Pulmonary oedema may also lead to death because of the peripheral constriction and cardiac
To counteract the pressor effects of adrenaline, use rapidly acting vasodilators, for instance
Adrenaline is incompatible with oxidising agents, alkalis, copper, zinc, iron, silver and other
Adrenaline has been reported to be incompatible with solutions containing the following:
aminophylline, ampicillin sodium, amylobarbitone sodium, ascorbic acid, benzylpenicillin
potassium, calcium chloride , calcium gluconate, cephalothin sodium, chloramphenicol sodium
succinate, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, corticotrophin, diazepam, digitoxin, ergometrine
succinate, methicillin sodium, nitrofurantoin, noradrenaline acid tartrate, novobiocin sodium,
pentobarbitone sodium, procaine, prochlorperazine edisylate, promazine hydrochloride,
sodium bicarbonate, sulfadiazine sodium, suxamethonium chloride, tetracycline hydrochloride,
vancomycin hydrochloride, vitamin B complex with ascorbic acid, warfarin sodium.
This list is not intended to be comprehensive. Refer to standard texts for further information.
1.0 mg/mL (1:1000) 1 mL glass ampoules in packs of 5 and 50
Shelf Life And Storage Conditions
Store below 25
C and protect from light.
1:1000 syringes have a shelf-life of 18 months.
Name and Address
Max Health Limited
P O Box 65231
Telephone: (09) 815 2664
Date of Preparation
5 May 2016