DOVATO TABLET

Canada - English - Health Canada

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Active ingredient:
DOLUTEGRAVIR (DOLUTEGRAVIR SODIUM); LAMIVUDINE
Available from:
VIIV HEALTHCARE ULC
ATC code:
J05AR25
INN (International Name):
LAMIVUDINE AND DOLUTEGRAVIR
Dosage:
50MG; 300MG
Pharmaceutical form:
TABLET
Composition:
DOLUTEGRAVIR (DOLUTEGRAVIR SODIUM) 50MG; LAMIVUDINE 300MG
Administration route:
ORAL
Units in package:
1ML/5ML
Prescription type:
Prescription
Therapeutic area:
HIV INTEGRASE INHIBITORS
Product summary:
Active ingredient group (AIG) number: 0261731001; AHFS: 08:18.08.12
Authorization status:
APPROVED
Authorization number:
02491753
Authorization date:
2019-08-22

Documents in other languages

Page 1 of 43

PRODUCT MONOGRAPH

INCLUDING PATIENT MEDICATION INFORMATION

Pr

DOVATO

dolutegravir and lamivudine tablets

50 mg dolutegravir (as dolutegravir sodium) and 300 mg lamivudine, Oral

Antiretroviral Agent

ViiV Healthcare ULC

245, boulevard Armand-Frappier

Laval, Quebec

H7V 4A7

Date of Initial Approval:

August 22, 2019

Date of revision:

February 5, 2020

Submission Control No: 233231

2020 ViiV Healthcare group of companies or its licensor

Trademarks are owned by or licensed to the ViiV Healthcare group of companies

Page 2 of 43

RECENT MAJOR LABEL CHANGES

Contraindications (2)

Warnings and Precautions, Pregnant Women (7.1.1)

Dosage and Administration, Dosing Considerations (4.1)

02/2020

02/2020

02/2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RECENT MAJOR LABEL CHANGES

......................................................................................2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

..............................................................................................................2

PART I: HEALTH PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION

............................................................4

1

INDICATIONS

....................................................................................................................4

Pediatrics ..................................................................................................................4

Geriatrics ..................................................................................................................4

2

CONTRAINDICATIONS

..................................................................................................4

3

SERIOUS WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS BOX

..................................................4

4

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

...............................................................................5

Dosing Considerations ..............................................................................................5

Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment..........................................................5

Missed Dose .............................................................................................................6

5

OVERDOSAGE

.................................................................................................................6

6

DOSAGE FORMS, STRENGTHS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING

................6

7

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

...............................................................................7

Special Populations...................................................................................................9

7.1.1

Pregnant Women .................................................................................................. 9

7.1.2

Breast-feeding .................................................................................................... 10

7.1.3

Pediatrics ............................................................................................................ 11

7.1.4

Geriatrics ............................................................................................................ 11

8

ADVERSE REACTIONS

................................................................................................11

Adverse Reaction Overview ...................................................................................11

Clinical Trial Adverse Reactions ............................................................................11

Less Common Clinical Trial Adverse Reactions ...................................................12

Abnormal Laboratory Findings: Hematologic, Clinical Chemistry and Other

Quantitative Data ...............................................................................................................13

Clinical Trial Adverse Reactions (Adolescents) ....................................................14

Post-Market Adverse Reactions .............................................................................15

9

DRUG INTERACTIONS

.................................................................................................15

Overview ................................................................................................................15

Drug-Drug Interactions ...........................................................................................15

Page 3 of 43

Drug-Food Interactions...........................................................................................22

Drug-Herb Interactions ...........................................................................................22

Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions .........................................................................22

10

ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

...........................................................22

10.1

Mechanism of Action .............................................................................................22

10.2

Pharmacodynamics .................................................................................................22

10.3

Pharmacokinetics ....................................................................................................23

11

STORAGE, STABILITY AND DISPOSAL

..................................................................27

12

SPECIAL HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS

.....................................................................27

PART II: SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

...................................................................................28

13

PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION

........................................................................28

14

CLINICAL TRIALS

.........................................................................................................29

14.1

Trial Design and Study Demographics ...................................................................29

14.2

Study Results ..........................................................................................................31

14.3

Comparative Bioavailability Studies ......................................................................33

15

MICROBIOLOGY

............................................................................................................35

16

NON-CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

...................................................................................37

17

SUPPORTING PRODUCT MONOGRAPHS

..............................................................37

PATIENT MEDICATION INFORMATION

...............................................................................38

Page 4 of 43

PART I: HEALTH PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION

1

INDICATIONS

DOVATO (dolutegravir and lamivudine) is indicated as a complete regimen for the treatment of

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and adolescents 12 years of

age and older and weighing at least 40 kg.

1.1

Pediatrics

Pediatrics (<18 years of age): Safety and efficacy of DOVATO in pediatric patients less than

12 years of age have not been established. There are no clinical study data with DOVATO in

the adolescent population. The safety and efficacy of DOVATO in adolescents 12 years of age

and older, and weighing at least 40 kg, is supported by the clinical data from studies of

dolutegravir or lamivudine as single agents in combination with other antiretroviral agents in

adolescents, and also by the clinical data from studies with dolutegravir in combination with

lamivudine in adults (see CLINICAL TRIALS, Adolescents).

1.2

Geriatrics

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age): Clinical studies of DOVATO did not include sufficient numbers

of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from adult

patients < 65 years of age.

2

CONTRAINDICATIONS

DOVATO is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this drug or to any ingredient

in the formulation, including any non-medicinal ingredient, or component of the container. For a

complete listing, see DOSAGE FORMS, STRENGTHS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING.

DOVATO is contraindicated in combination with drugs with narrow therapeutic windows, that are

substrates of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), including but not limited to dofetilide, and/or

fampridine (also known as dalfampridine) (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

3

SERIOUS WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS BOX

Serious Warnings and Precautions

Post-Treatment Exacerbations of Hepatitis B

Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are infected

with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and have discontinued lamivudine, a component of DOVATO.

Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for

at least several months in patients who discontinue DOVATO. If appropriate, initiation of

anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS,

Hepatic/Biliary/Pancreatic).

Page 5 of 43

4

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

4.1

Dosing Considerations

As with all antiretroviral drugs, therapy should be initiated by a healthcare professional

experienced in the management of HIV infection.

DOVATO can be taken with or without food.

DOVATO is a fixed-dose tablet and should not be prescribed for patients requiring dosage

adjustments, such as those with creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min.

DOVATO is not recommended for patients with any known or suspected viral resistance to

dolutegravir or lamivudine.

DOVATO contains lamivudine and therefore it is recommended to test for Hepatitis B virus

(HBV) infection prior to or when initiating DOVATO (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS,

Hepatic/Biliary/Pancreatic).

Perform pregnancy testing before initiation of DOVATO in individuals of childbearing

potential.

4.2

Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment

The recommended dose of DOVATO in adults and adolescents weighing at least 40 kg is one

tablet once daily taken orally.

A separate preparation of dolutegravir (TIVICAY) is available where dose adjustment is required

due to drug-drug interactions (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Pediatrics (< 12 years of age): Safety and efficacy of DOVATO in pediatric patients less than

12 years of age and weighting less than 40 kg have not been established.

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age): Clinical studies of DOVATO did not include sufficient numbers

of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from adult

patients < 65 years of age.

Dosage Recommendation with Certain Concomitant Medications

The dolutegravir dose (50 mg) in DOVATO is insufficient when co-administered with

medications listed in Table 1 that may decrease dolutegravir concentrations; the following

dolutegravir dosage regimen is recommended.

Table 1

Dosing Recommendations for DOVATO with Co-administered Medications

Co-administered Drug

Dosing Recommendation

Oxcarbamazepine, carbamazepine,

phenytoin, phenobarbital, St. John’s wort

or rifampin

Adjust dolutegravir dose to 50 mg twice

daily. The additional 50 mg dose of

dolutegravir should be taken, separated

by 12 hours from DOVATO (see DRUG

INTERACTIONS).

Page 6 of 43

Renal insufficiency

DOVATO is not recommended for use in patients with a creatinine clearance less than 50

mL/min as the dose of lamivudine cannot be adjusted (see ACTION AND CLINICAL

PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations and Conditions, Renal

Insufficiency).

Hepatic insufficiency

No dosage adjustment of DOVATO is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic

insufficiency (Child-Pugh score A or B). DOVATO is not recommended in patients with severe

hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score C) as it has not been studied in these patients (see

ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations and

Conditions, Hepatic Insufficiency).

4.3

Missed Dose

If a dose is missed, patients should take the missed dose as soon as possible unless it is within

4 hours of their next scheduled dose. If a dose is skipped, the patient should not double the next

dose.

5

OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms and signs

Experience with overdose of DOVATO or the individual components, dolutegravir and

lamivudine is limited. No specific symptoms or signs have been identified.

Treatment

There is no known treatment for overdose with DOVATO. If overdose occurs, the patient should

be monitored and standard supportive treatment applied as required. Since lamivudine is

dialysable, continuous haemodialysis could be used in the treatment of overdose, although this

has not been studied. As dolutegravir is highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that it will

be significantly removed by dialysis.

For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional poison control centre.

6

DOSAGE FORMS, STRENGTHS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING

Table 2

Dosage Forms, Strengths, Composition and Packaging.

Each film-coated tablet of DOVATO contains 50 mg dolutegravir (as 52.6 mg of dolutegravir

sodium) and 300 mg lamivudine.

Route of

Administration

Dosage Form /

Strength/Composition

Non-medicinal Ingredients

oral

tablet

50 mg dolutegravir (as

dolutegravir sodium),

300 mg lamivudine

hypromellose, macrogol/PEG, magnesium

stearate, mannitol (E421), microcrystalline

cellulose, povidone (K29/32), sodium starch

glycolate, sodium stearyl fumarate, titanium

dioxide

Page 7 of 43

Dosage Forms

DOVATO tablets are oval, biconvex, white, film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘SV 137’ on one

face.

Packaging

DOVATO tablets are supplied in opaque, white, round, HDPE (high density polyethylene)

bottles closed with polypropylene child-resistant closures. Each bottle contains 30 film-coated

tablets.

7

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Please see the Serious Warnings and Precautions Box at the beginning of Part I: Health

Professional Information.

General

DOVATO is a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection; therefore, coadministration

with other antiretroviral medications for treatment of HIV-1 infection is not recommended.

The safety and efficacy of DOVATO have not been studied in HIV-1-infected patients who have

failed previous antiretroviral therapy and are currently not virologically suppressed.

As with other antiretroviral medicinal products, resistance testing and/or historical resistance

data should guide the use of DOVATO. DOVATO should not be used in patients with known or

suspected resistance to dolutegravir or lamivudine.

Patients receiving DOVATO or any other antiretroviral therapy may still develop opportunistic

infections and other complications of HIV infection. Therefore, patients should remain under

close clinical observation by physicians experienced in the treatment of these associated HIV

diseases.

While effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy has been proven to substantially

reduce the risk of sexual transmission, a residual risk cannot be excluded. Precautions to

prevent transmission should be taken in accordance with national guidelines.

Endocrine and Metabolism

Serum lipids and blood glucose

Serum lipid and blood glucose levels may increase during antiretroviral therapy. Disease control

and life style changes may also be contributing factors. Consideration should be given to the

measurement of serum lipids and blood glucose. Lipid disorders and blood glucose elevations

should be managed as clinically appropriate.

Hematologic

Very rare occurrences of pure red cell aplasia have been reported with lamivudine use.

Discontinuation of lamivudine has resulted in normalization of hematologic parameters in

patients with suspected lamivudine-induced pure red cell aplasia.

Page 8 of 43

Hepatic/Biliary/Pancreatic

Hepatotoxicity

Cases of hepatic toxicity including elevated serum liver biochemistries, hepatitis, and acute liver

failure have been reported in patients receiving a dolutegravir-containing regimen who had no

pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors. Drug-induced liver injury leading to

liver transplant has been reported with TRIUMEQ. Monitoring for hepatotoxicity is

recommended.

Post-Treatment Exacerbations of Hepatitis B in Patients Co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV

Prior to or when initiating DOVATO, test for HBV infection (see DOSAGE AND

ADMINISTRATION).

Severe acute exacerbations of HBV have been reported in patients who are co-infected with

HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued lamivudine, a component of DOVATO. Patients who are

co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory

follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment with DOVATO. If appropriate,

initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted, especially in HBV co-infected patients

with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, since post-treatment exacerbation of hepatitis may lead

to hepatic decompensation.

Emergence of Lamivudine-Resistant HBV

Emergence of hepatitis B virus variants associated with resistance to lamivudine has also been

reported in HIV-1-infected patients who have received lamivudine-containing antiretroviral

regimens in the presence of concurrent infection with hepatitis B virus. Consider an alternative

regimen in these patients.

Liver chemistry changes in patients with HBV or HCV co-infection

Patients with underlying HBV or HCV may be at increased risk for worsening or development of

transaminase elevations with use of a dolutegravir-containing regimen. Liver chemistry

elevations consistent with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome were observed in

some HBV and/or HCV co-infected patients at the start of dolutegravir therapy. Monitoring of

liver chemistries is recommended in patients with HBV and/or HCV co-infection. Particular

diligence should be applied in initiating or maintaining effective HBV therapy when starting

therapy with DOVATO in HBV co-infected patients.

Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been

reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including lamivudine (a

component of DOVATO). Treatment with DOVATO should be suspended in any patient who

develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced

hepatotoxicity, which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked

transaminase elevations.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with integrase inhibitors, including dolutegravir,

and were characterized by rash, constitutional findings, and sometimes, organ dysfunction,

including liver injury. Discontinue DOVATO and other suspect agents immediately if signs or

symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions develop (including, but not limited to, severe rash or rash

accompanied by fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions,

Page 9 of 43

conjunctivitis, facial edema, hepatitis, eosinophilia, angioedema). Clinical status including liver

aminotransferases should be monitored and appropriate therapy initiated. Delay in stopping

treatment with DOVATO or other suspect agents after the onset of hypersensitivity may result in

a life-threatening reaction.

Immune

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

During the initial phase of treatment, patients responding to antiretroviral therapy may develop

an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as MAC, CMV,

PCP, and TB) which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.

Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis and Guillain-Barre syndrome)

have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution, however the time to

onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment and sometimes

can be an atypical presentation.

Sexual Health

Reproduction

Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR): To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant

women with HIV exposed to DOVATO and other antiretroviral agents, an Antiretroviral

Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients:

http://www.apregistry.com

Telephone: (800) 258-4263

Fax: (800) 800-1052

Fertility

There are no data on the effects of dolutegravir or lamivudine on human male or female fertility.

Animal studies indicate no effects of dolutegravir or lamivudine on male or female fertility (see

NON-CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY).

7.1

Special Populations

7.1.1

Pregnant Women

DOVATO has not been studied in pregnant women. DOVATO should not be used in pregnant

women unless the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks to the fetus. Women of

childbearing potential (WOCBP) should undergo pregnancy testing before initiation of DOVATO

and should be advised to use effective contraception throughout treatment. Initiation of

DOVATO is not recommended in adolescents and adults actively trying to become pregnant

unless there is no suitable alternative.

If there are plans to become pregnant or if pregnancy is

confirmed within the first trimester while on DOVATO, the risks and benefits of continuing

DOVATO versus switching to another antiretroviral regimen should be assessed and switching

to an alternative regimen should be considered. DOVATO may be considered during the second

and third trimesters of pregnancy if the expected benefit justifies the potential risk to the

pregnant woman and the fetus.

Page 10 of 43

Dolutegravir:

In a birth outcome surveillance study in Botswana there have been 5 cases of neural tube

defects reported in 1683 deliveries (0.3%) to mothers taking dolutegravir-containing regimens

from the time of conception, compared with 15 cases in 14,792 deliveries (0.1%) to mothers

taking non-dolutegravir-containing regimens from the time of conception (Prevalence Difference

0.20%; 95% CI 0.01-0.59). In the same study, one infant out of 3,840 deliveries (0.03%) to

mothers who started dolutegravir during pregnancy had a neural tube defect, compared with

three out of 5,952 deliveries (0.05%) to mothers who started non-dolutegravir-containing

regimens during pregnancy. A causal relationship of these events to the use of dolutegravir has

not been established. The incidence of neural tube defects in the general population ranges

from 0.5-1 case per 1,000 live births. As neural tube defects occur within the first 4 weeks of

fetal development (at which time the neural tubes are sealed) this potential risk would concern

women exposed to dolutegravir at the time of conception and in early pregnancy.

Data analysed to date from other sources including the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry,

clinical trials, and post-marketing data are insufficient to address the risk of neural tube defects

with dolutegravir. More than 1,000 outcomes from second and third trimester exposure in

pregnant women indicate no evidence of increased risk of adverse birth outcomes.

In reproductive toxicity studies in animals, dolutegravir was shown to cross the placenta and no

evidence of teratogenicity, reproductive function, relevant embryonic or fetal toxicity including

neural tube defects was identified in rats and rabbits at

30 and 0.55 times human clinical

exposure based on AUC, respectively.

Lamivudine:

There have been reports of mild, transient elevations in serum lactate levels, which may be due

to mitochondrial dysfunction, in neonates and infants exposed in utero or peri-partum to

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The clinical relevance of transient

elevations in serum lactate is unknown. There have also been very rare reports of

developmental delay, seizures and other neurological disease. However, a causal relationship

between these events and NRTI exposure in utero or peri-partum has not been established.

These findings do not affect current recommendations to use antiretroviral therapy in pregnant

women to prevent vertical transmission of HIV.

Reproduction studies with lamivudine in rats and rabbits showed no evidence of teratogenicity.

Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at lamivudine exposure levels similar to

those observed in humans, but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at exposure levels

~21 times (based on C

) that of the recommended human dose. Studies in pregnant rats

showed that lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta (see NON-CLINICAL

TOXICOLOGY).

7.1.2

Breast-feeding

HIV-1-infected mothers should not breast-feed their infants to avoid risking postnatal

transmission of HIV. It is expected that dolutegravir will be present in human milk based on

animal data. Lamivudine is excreted in human milk at similar concentrations to those found in

serum. Because of the potential for HIV-1 transmission and the potential for serious adverse

reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breast-feed if they are receiving

DOVATO.

Page 11 of 43

7.1.3

Pediatrics

Pediatrics (< 12 years of age): Safety and efficacy of DOVATO have not been established in

pediatric patients less than 12 years of age.

7.1.4

Geriatrics

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age): Clinical studies of DOVATO did not include sufficient numbers

of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from adult

patients < 65 years of age. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of

DOVATO in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or

cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8

ADVERSE REACTIONS

8.1

Adverse Reaction Overview

The safety assessment of DOVATO in HIV-1-infected, treatment naïve adult patients with viral

load ≤ 500,000 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL is based on the pooled primary Week 48 analyses of

data from two identical, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trials, GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2

where dolutegravir plus lamivudine were co-administered as single agents (TIVICAY and 3TC).

For details on adverse reactions that have occurred in studies with dolutegravir or lamivudine,

please refer to the TIVICAY and 3TC product monographs.

A total of 1,433 adult HIV–1-infected treatment-naïve subjects were randomized to dolutegravir

50 mg plus lamivudine 300 mg, as a complete regimen once daily, or dolutegravir 50 mg plus

fixed-dose combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), administered

once daily.

The rates of adverse events leading to discontinuation in the pooled analysis were 2% of

subjects in both treatment arms. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation

were psychiatric disorders (<1% of subjects in both treatment arms).

The following adverse drug reactions are discussed in the WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

section:

Hepatotoxicity

Severe acute exacerbation of hepatitis B in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis

Hypersensitivity reactions

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

8.2

Clinical Trial Adverse Reactions

Because clinical trials are conducted under very specific conditions, the adverse reaction rates

observed in the clinical trials may not reflect the rates observed in practice and should not be

compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug. Adverse reaction information from

clinical trials is useful for identifying drug-related adverse events and for approximating rates.

Page 12 of 43

Adverse reactions (all grades) observed in at least 2% of subjects in either treatment arm of

either individual study or the Week 48 pooled analysis of GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 studies are

provided in Table 3.

The adverse reactions observed for TIVICAY plus 3TC in the pooled Week 48 analysis from

GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 were generally consistent with the adverse reaction profiles and

severities for the individual components, when administered with other antiretroviral agents. The

majority of adverse reactions related to TIVICAY plus 3TC were of Grade 1 intensity.

Table 3

Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions (All Grades) and at Least 2%

Frequency in either treatment arm (Week 48 Individual Studies and Pooled

Analyses)

SOC

GEMINI-1

GEMINI-2

POOLED

TIVICAY +

3TC

(n = 356)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(n=358)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

3TC

(n = 360)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(n=359)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

3TC

(n = 716)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(n = 717)

n (%)

Nervous system

disorders

Headache

14 (4)

19 (5)

7 (2)

11 (3)

21 (3)

30 (4)

Somnolence

7 (2)

5 (1)

1 (<1)

2 (<1)

8 (1)

7 (<1)

Dizziness

5 (1)

6 (2)

3 (<1)

7 (2)

8 (1)

13 (2)

Gastrointestinal

disorders

Nausea

8 (2)

23 (6)

6 (2)

16 (4)

14 (2)

39 (5)

Diarrhea

6 (2)

14 (4)

8 (2)

5 (1)

14 (2)

19 (3)

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia

7 (2)

12 (3)

6 (2)

6 (2)

13 (2)

18 (3)

General disorders

and administration

site conditions

Fatigue

6 (2)

3 (<1)

4 (1)

3 (<1)

10 (1)

6 (<1)

SOC = System Organ Class/Preferred Term

The only adverse reaction of ≥ Grade 2 occurring in ≥1% of subjects treated with TIVICAY plus

3TC was headache (1%).

8.3

Less Common Clinical Trial Adverse Reactions

The following adverse reactions occurred in less than 2% of patients receiving dolutegravir plus

lamivudine or are from studies described in the product monographs of the individual

components TIVICAY (dolutegravir) and 3TC (lamivudine). Some events have been included

because of their seriousness and assessment of potential causal relationship.

Blood and Lymphatic Systems Disorders: Anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia.

Gastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, flatulence, upper

abdominal pain, vomiting

General Disorders: Fever, malaise

Page 13 of 43

Hepatobiliary Disorders: Hepatitis

Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity, immune reconstitution inflammatory

syndrome

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Myositis

Psychiatric Disorders: Abnormal dreams, depression, suicidal ideation or suicide attempt

(particularly in patients with a pre-existing history of depression or psychiatric illness)

Renal and Urinary Disorders: Renal impairment

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Pruritus, rash

8.4

Abnormal Laboratory Findings: Hematologic, Clinical Chemistry and Other

Quantitative Data

Selected laboratory abnormalities with a worsening grade from baseline and representing the

worst-grade toxicity experienced in at least 2% of patients are presented in Table 4.

Table 4

Selected Laboratory Abnormalities (Grades 2 and 3 to 4; Week 48 Pooled

Analyses)

Laboratory Parameter

Preferred Term

TIVICAY + 3TC

(N = 716)

n (%)

TIVICAY + TRUVADA

(N = 717)

n (%)

Grade 2 (>2.5 to 5.0 x ULN)

13 (2)

20 (3)

Grade 3 to 4 (>5.0 x ULN)

18 (3)

18 (3)

Grade 2 (>2.5 to 5.0 x ULN)

22 (3)

19 (3)

Grade 3 to 4 (>5.0 x ULN)

12 (2)

24 (3)

Total Bilirubin

Grade 2 (1.6 to 2.5 x ULN)

9 (1)

17 (2)

Grade 3 to 4 (>2.5 x ULN)

7 (<1)

7 (<1)

Cholesterol

Grade 2 (6.19 to <7.77 mmol/L)

30 (4)

14 (2)

Grade 3 to 4 (>7.77 mmol/L)

Creatine kinase

Grade 2 (6.0 to 9.9 x ULN)

26 (4)

21 (3)

Grade 3 to 4 (≥10.0 x ULN)

32 (4)

35 (5)

Hyperglycemia

Grade 2 (6.95 to 13.89 mmol/L)

48 (7)

29 (4)

Grade 3 to 4 (>13.89 mmol/L)

5 (<1)

5 (<1)

LDL Cholesterol

Grade 2 (4.12 to < 4.9 mmol/L)

20 (3)

12 (2)

Grade 3 to 4 (> 4.9 mmol/L)

8 (1)

3 (<1)

Lipase

Grade 2 (>1.5 to 3.0 x ULN)

37 (5)

34 (5)

Grade 3 to 4 (>3.0 x ULN)

7 (<1)

19 (3)

Page 14 of 43

Laboratory Parameter

Preferred Term

TIVICAY + 3TC

(N = 716)

n (%)

TIVICAY + TRUVADA

(N = 717)

n (%)

Triglycerides

Grade 2 (>3.42 to 5.7 mmol/L)

13 (2)

13 (2)

Grade 3 to 4 (> 5.7 mmol/L)

9 (1)

4 (<1)

ULN = Upper limit of normal, ALT = Alanine Aminotransferase, AST = Aspartate Aminotransferase

Changes in Clinical Laboratory Values

Dolutegravir has been shown to increase serum creatinine due to inhibition of tubular secretion

of creatinine without affecting renal glomerular function. Increases in serum creatinine occurred

within the first four weeks of treatment with dolutegravir plus lamivudine and remained stable

through 48 weeks. A mean change from baseline of 10.30 µmol/L (range: -36.3 µmol/L to 55.7

µmol/L) was observed after 48 weeks of treatment (see ACTION AND CLINICAL

PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics, Effects on Renal Function).

Small increases in total bilirubin (without clinical jaundice) were observed with dolutegravir plus

lamivudine. These changes are not considered clinically relevant as they likely reflect

competition between dolutegravir and unconjugated bilirubin for a common clearance pathway

(UGT1A1) (see ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics,

Metabolism).

In the pooled analysis, few subjects in either group experienced changes in lipid profile. A small

number of subjects in each treatment group experienced LDL cholesterol toxicities ≥ Grade 2,

TIVICAY + 3TC 4% and TIVICAY + TRUVADA group 2%. However, both treatment groups

showed an overall reduction in the mean total cholesterol/HDL ratio, with a greater reduction in

the TIVICAY + TRUVADA group. A small proportion of subjects in both treatment groups also

had emergent triglyceride toxicities of ≥ Grade 2, TIVICAY + 3TC 3%, TIVICAY + TRUVADA

2%. A total of 23 and 13 subjects receiving TIVICAY + 3TC and TIVICAY + TRUVADA,

respectively, initiated lipid-lowering agents post-baseline.

Table 5

Mean Change from Baseline in Fasted Lipid Values (Week 48 Pooled

Analyses) in GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 Trials

Laboratory Parameter

Preferred Term

TIVICAY plus 3T

C

(n = 716)

TIVICAY plus TRUVADA

(n = 717)

Cholesterol (mmol/L)

0.35

-0.18

HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)

0.15

0.02

LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)

0.19

-0.16

Triglycerides (mmol/L)

0.04

-0.08

Total cholesterol/HDL

cholesterol ratio

-0.09

-0.26

8.5

Clinical Trial Adverse Reactions (Adolescents)

There are no clinical study data with DOVATO in the adolescent population. However, a

summary of the clinical trial adverse reactions from prior adolescent studies of dolutegravir or

lamivudine are available in the respective TIVICAY, 3TC and TRIUMEQ product monographs.

For the adolescent studies, there were no additional types of adverse reactions beyond those

observed in the adult population.

Page 15 of 43

8.6

Post-Market Adverse Reactions

These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of

reporting, potential causal connection to dolutegravir- and/or lamivudine-containing regimens, or

a combination of these factors. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of

unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made.

Body as a whole: anaphylaxis, weakness

Blood and Lymphatic Systems Disorders: pure red cell aplasia, anemia, lymphadenopathy

Gastrointestinal Disorders: rises in serum amylase, pancreatitis, stomatitis

Hepatobiliary Disorders: acute hepatic failure, splenomegaly

Investigations: weight increased

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: lactic acidosis, hyperlactatemia, hepatic steatosis,

hyperglycemia

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: muscle disorders including rarely

rhabdomyolysis, arthralgia, myalgia

Nervous System Disorders: paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy

Psychiatric Disorders: anxiety

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: alopecia,

urticaria, pruritus

9

DRUG INTERACTIONS

9.1

Overview

DOVATO contains dolutegravir plus lamivudine and any interactions that have been identified

with either component individually may occur with DOVATO. There are no significant

interactions between dolutegravir and lamivudine. Because DOVATO is a complete regimen

coadministration with other antiretroviral medications for the treatment of HIV-1 infection is not

recommended and information regarding potential drug-drug interactions with other antiretroviral

medications is not provided. For more information on these interactions, please refer to the

TIVICAY and 3TC product monographs.

9.2

Drug-Drug Interactions

Effect of Dolutegravir or Lamivudine on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Agents

Dolutegravir

In vitro, dolutegravir did not inhibit (IC

>50 μM) the enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A2,

CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, uridine diphosphate

glucuronosyl transferase (UGT)1A1 or UGT2B7, or transporters: P-glycoprotein (Pgp), breast

Page 16 of 43

cancer resistance protein (BCRP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), organic anion transporter

polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, or multidrug resistance protein (MRP)2 or MRP4. In

vitro, dolutegravir did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4. Based on these data,

dolutegravir is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of these

enzymes or transporters.

In vitro, dolutegravir inhibited the renal organic cation transporter 2, OCT2 (IC

= 1.93

multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE) 1 (IC

=6.34

M) and MATE2-K (IC

=24.8

M). In vivo, dolutegravir has a low potential to affect the transport of MATE2-K substrates. In

vivo, dolutegravir inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine by inhibiting OCT2. Dolutegravir may

increase plasma concentrations of drugs in which excretion is dependent upon OCT2 (for

example dofetilide, fampridine (also known as dalfampridine) (see

CONTRAINDICATIONS), metformin) or MATE1 (see Table 6).

In vitro, dolutegravir inhibited the basolateral renal transporters: organic anion transporter (OAT)

1 (IC

= 2.12

M) and OAT3 (IC

= 1.97

M). Based upon the dolutegravir unbound plasma

concentration, in silico modelling, and no notable effect on the pharmacokinetics in vivo of the

OAT substrates tenofovir and para-aminohippurate, dolutegravir has low propensity to cause

drug interactions via inhibition of OAT transporters.

Lamivudine

In vitro, lamivudine does not inhibit or induce CYP enzymes (such as CYP 3A4, CYP 2C9 or

CYP 2D6). Lamivudine demonstrates no or weak inhibition of the drug transporters organic

anion transporter 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or P-

glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), MATE2-K or organic cation

transporter 3 (OCT3). Lamivudine is therefore not expected to affect the plasma concentrations

of drugs that are substrates of these enzymes or drug transporters.

Lamivudine is an inhibitor of OCT1 and OCT2 in vitro with IC50 values of 17 and 33 µM,

respectively, however lamivudine has low potential to affect the plasma concentrations of OCT1

and OCT2 substrates at therapeutic drug exposures (up to 300 mg).

Effect of Other Agents on the Pharmacokinetics of Dolutegravir or Lamivudine

Dolutegravir

Dolutegravir is metabolized by UGT1A1 with some contribution from CYP3A. Dolutegravir is

also a substrate of UGT1A3, UGT1A9, Pgp and BCRP in vitro; therefore drugs that induce

those enzymes and transporters, may decrease dolutegravir plasma concentration and reduce

the therapeutic effect of dolutegravir.

Co-administration of dolutegravir and other drugs that inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A9,

CYP3A4 and/or Pgp may increase dolutegravir plasma concentration (see Table 6).

In vitro, dolutegravir is not a substrate of human organic anion transporting polypeptide

(OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, or OCT1.

Coadministration of dolutegravir with polyvalent cation-containing products may lead to

decreased adsorption of dolutegravir.

Page 17 of 43

Lamivudine

Lamivudine is a substrate of MATE1, MATE2-K and OCT2 in vitro. Trimethoprim (an inhibitor of

these drug transporters) has been shown to increase lamivudine plasma concentrations,

however this interaction is not considered clinically significant as no dose adjustment of

lamivudine is needed.

Lamivudine is a substrate of the hepatic uptake transporter OCT1. As hepatic elimination plays

a minor role in the clearance of lamivudine, drug interactions due to inhibition of OCT1 are

unlikely to be of clinical significance.

Lamivudine is a substrate of Pgp and BCRP, however due to its high bioavailability it is unlikely

that these transporters play a significant role in the absorption of lamivudine. Therefore, co-

administration of drugs that are inhibitors of these efflux transporters is unlikely to affect the

disposition and elimination of lamivudine.

Lamivudine is predominantly eliminated by active organic cationic secretion. The possibility of

interactions with other drugs administered concurrently should be considered, particularly when

the main route of administration is renal.

Established or Potential Drug Interactions

Established and theoretical interactions with selected medicinal products are listed in Table 6.

The drugs listed in this table are not all-inclusive. Recommendations are based on either drug

interaction studies, or potential or predicted interactions due to the expected magnitude of

interaction and/or potential for serious adverse events or loss of efficacy.

Table 6

Established or Potential Drug-Drug Interactions

Concomitant Drug Class:

Drug Name

Effect on Concentration

of Dolutegravir,

Lamivudine, or

Concomitant Drug*

Clinical Comment

DOLUTEGRAVIR

Antiarrhythmic:

Dofetilide

Dofetilide

Coadministration of

DOVATO with dofetilide is

contraindicated due to

potential life-threatening

toxicity caused by high

dofetilide concentrations.

Potassium channel blocker:

Fampridine (also known as

dalfampridine)

Fampridine/dalfampridine

Coadministration is

contraindicated with

DOVATO due to the

potential for seizures

associated with

fampridine/dalfampridine.

Page 18 of 43

Concomitant Drug Class:

Drug Name

Effect on Concentration

of Dolutegravir,

Lamivudine, or

Concomitant Drug*

Clinical Comment

Anticonvulsants

Oxcarbazepine

Phenytoin

Phenobarbital

Carbamazepine

Dolutegravir

An additional 50 mg dose

of dolutegravir (TIVICAY)

should be taken, separated

by 12 hours from

DOVATO.

Antidiabetics:

Metformin

Co-administered with

DOVATO:

Metformin

Consider metformin dose

adjustments when starting

or stopping concomitant

treatment to maintain

glycemic control.

Antimycobacterials

Rifampin

Dolutegravir↓

An additional 50 mg dose

of dolutegravir (TIVICAY)

should be taken, separated

by 12 hours from

DOVATO.

Medications containing

polyvalent cations (e.g. Mg,

Al)

Cation-containing antacids

laxative, sucralfate, buffered

medications

Dolutegravir

DOVATO is recommended

to be administered 2 hours

before or 6 hours after

taking medications

containing polyvalent

cations.

Calcium and iron supplements

Includes multivitamins that

contain calcium or iron.

Dolutegravir

When taken with food,

DOVATO and calcium

and/or iron supplements or

multivitamins containing

calcium and/or iron can be

taken at the same time.

Under fasting conditions,

DOVATO should be taken

2 hours before or 6 hours

after taking supplements

containing calcium and/or

iron.

Page 19 of 43

Concomitant Drug Class:

Drug Name

Effect on Concentration

of Dolutegravir,

Lamivudine, or

Concomitant Drug*

Clinical Comment

LAMIVUDINE

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

(Co-trimoxazole)

Lamivudine:

~40%

Trimethoprim:

Sulfamethoxazole:

Unless the patient has

renal impairment, no

dosage adjustment of

DOVATO is necessary.

Co-administration with

DOVATO is not

recommended in patients

with renal impairment as

lamivudine dosage

adjustment is not possible.

The effect of

coadministration of

lamivudine with higher

doses of co-trimoxazole

used for the treatment of

Pneumocystis jiroveci

pneumonia (often referred

to as PCP) and

toxoplasmosis has not

been studied.

Sorbitol solution

(3.2 g, 10.2 g, 13.4 g)

Single dose lamivudine

oral solution 300 mg

Lamivudine:

14%; 32%; 36%

28%; 52%, 55%.

When possible, avoid

chronic coadministration of

sorbitol-containing

medicines with DOVATO.

Consider more frequent

monitoring of HIV-1 viral

load when chronic

coadministration cannot be

avoided.

= Increase,

= Decrease,

= No change.

For magnitude of interaction, see Table 7 and Table 8.

The effects of DTG on the exposure of co-administered drugs are shown in Table 7. The effects

of co-administered drugs on the exposure of DTG are shown in Table 8.

Page 20 of 43

Table 7

Summary of Effect of Dolutegravir on the Pharmacokinetics of Co-

administered Drugs

Co-administered

Drug(s)

and Dose(s)

Dose of

Dolutegravir

n

Geometric Mean Ratio (90% CI) of

Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Co-

administered Drug With/Without Dolutegravir

No Effect = 1.00

C

or C

24

AUC

C

max

Daclatasvir

60 mg once daily

50 mg

once daily

1.06

(0.88 to 1.29)

0.98

(0.83 to 1.15)

1.03

(0.84 to 1.25)

Ethinyl estradiol

0.035 mg

50 mg

twice daily

1.02

(0.93, 1.11)

1.03

(0.96, 1.11)

0.99

(0.91, 1.08)

Methadone

16 to 150 mg

50 mg

twice daily

0.99

(0.91, 1.07)

0.98

(0.91, 1.06)

1.00

(0.94, 1.06)

Midazolam

3 mg

25 mg

once daily

0.95

(0.79, 1.15)

Norgestimate

0.25 mg

50 mg

twice daily

0.93

(0.85, 1.03)

0.98

(0.91, 1.04)

0.89

(0.82, 0.97)

Metformin

500 mg twice daily

50 mg

once daily

1.79

(1.65, 1.93)

1.66

(1.53, 1.81)

Metformin

500 mg twice daily

50 mg

twice daily

2.45

(2.25, 2.66)

2.11

(1.91, 2.33)

Page 21 of 43

Table 8

Summary of Effect of Co-administered Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of

Dolutegravir

Co-administered

Drug(s)

and Dose(s)

Dose of

Dolutegravir

n

Geometric Mean Ratio (90% CI) of

Dolutegravir Pharmacokinetic Parameters

With/Without Co-administered Drugs

No Effect = 1.00

C

or C

24

AUC

C

max

Maalox

50 mg

single dose

0.26

(0.21, 0.31)

0.26

(0.22, 0.32)

0.28

(0.23, 0.33)

Maalox

2 hrs after dolutegravir

50 mg

single dose

0.70

(0.58, 0.85)

0.74

(0.62, 0.90)

0.82

(0.69, 0.98)

Calcium Carbonate

1200 mg simultaneous

administration (fasted)

50 mg

single dose

0.61

(0.47, 0.80)

0.61

(0.47, 0.80)

0.63

(0.50, 0.81)

Calcium Carbonate

1200 mg simultaneous

administration (fed)

50 mg

single dose

1.08

(0.81, 1.42)

1.09

(0.84, 1.43)

1.07

(0.83, 1.38)

Calcium Carbonate

1200 mg 2 hrs after

dolutegravir

50 mg

single dose

0.90

(0.68, 1.19)

0.94

(0.72, 1.23)

1.00

(0.78, 1.29)

Ferrous Fumarate

324 mg simultaneous

administration (fasted)

50 mg

single dose

0.44

(0.36, 0.54)

0.46

(0.38, 0.56)

0.43

(0.35, 0.52)

Ferrous Fumarate

324 mg simultaneous

administration (fed)

50 mg

single dose

1.00

(0.81, 1.23)

0.98

(0.81, 1.20)

1.03

(0.84, 1.26)

Ferrous Fumarate

324 mg 2 hrs after

dolutegravir

50 mg

single dose

0.92

(0.74, 1.13)

0.95

(0.77, 1.15)

0.99

(0.81, 1.21)

Multivitamin

One tablet once daily

50 mg

single dose

0.68

(0.56, 0.82)

0.67

(0.55, 0.81)

0.65

(0.54, 0.77)

Omeprazole

40 mg once daily

50 mg

single dose

0.95

(0.75, 1.21)

0.97

(0.78, 1.20)

0.92

(0.75, 1.11)

Prednisone

60 mg once daily with

taper

50 mg

once daily

1.17

(1.06, 1.28)

1.11

(1.03, 1.20)

1.06

(0.99, 1.14)

Rifampin

600 mg once daily

50 mg

twice daily

0.28

(0.23, 0.34)

0.46

(0.38, 0.55)

0.57

(0.49, 0.65)

Rifampin

600 mg once daily

50 mg

twice daily

1.22

(1.01, 1.48)

1.33

(1.15, 1.53)

1.18

(1.03, 1.37)

Rifabutin

300 mg once daily

50 mg

once daily

0.70

(0.57, 0.87)

0.95

(0.82, 1.10)

1.16

(0.98, 1.37)

Carbamazepine

300 mg twice daily

50 mg

once daily

0.27

(0.24, 0.31)

0.51

(0.48, 0.55)

0.67

(0.61, 0.73)

Daclatasvir

60 mg once daily

50 mg

once daily

1.45

(1.25 to 1.68)

1.33

(1.11 to 1.59)

1.29

(1.07 to 1.57)

Comparison is rifampin taken with dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily compared with dolutegravir 50 mg

twice daily.

Comparison is rifampin taken with dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily compared with dolutegravir 50 mg

once daily.

Page 22 of 43

Drugs with No Observed or Predicted Interactions with DOVATO

Based on drug interaction studies conducted with DOVATO or the components of DOVATO, no

clinically significant drug interactions have been either observed or are expected when

DOVATO is administered with the following drugs: hormonal contraceptives containing

norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol, methadone, midazolam, omeprazole, prednisone, rifabutin,

daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (except in renal impairment,

see Table 6), and calcium carbonate, ferrous fumarate, or cation-containing multivitamin

supplements (when taken with food, see Table 6).

9.3

Drug-Food Interactions

DOVATO can be taken with or without food (see ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

9.4

Drug-Herb Interactions

No interaction study has been conducted, however, St. John’s Wort is a potent CYP3A inducer

and may potentially decrease dolutegravir plasma concentration. In adults and adolescent

patients, an additional dose of TIVICAY 50 mg separated by 12 hours from DOVATO may be

considered when taken together with St. John’s Wort.

9.5

Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions

No Drug-Laboratory interactions have been identified.

10

ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

10.1

Mechanism of Action

Dolutegravir inhibits HIV integrase by binding to the integrase active site and blocking the strand

transfer step of retroviral Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integration which is essential for the HIV

replication cycle. In vitro, dolutegravir dissociates slowly from the active site of the wild type

integrase-DNA complex (t ½ 71 hours). Strand transfer biochemical assays using purified HIV-1

integrase and pre-processed substrate DNA resulted in IC

values of 2.7 nM and 12.6 nM.

Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue, an (-) enantiomer of a dideoxy analogue of

cytidine. Lamivudine is metabolized by intracellular kinases to its triphosphate (TP), which is the

active moiety (lamivudine triphosphate or L-TP) Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse

transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), and is a potent, selective inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication

in vitro. In vitro L-TP has an intracellular half-life of approximately 10.5 to 15.5 hours. L-TP is a

substrate for and a competitive inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). Inhibition of RT is via

viral DNA chain termination after nucleoside analogue incorporation. L-TP shows significantly

less affinity for host cell DNA polymerases and is a weak inhibitor of mammalian α, β, and γ

DNA polymerases.

10.2

Pharmacodynamics

In a randomized, dose-ranging trial, HIV 1 infected patients treated with dolutegravir

monotherapy demonstrated rapid and dose-dependent antiviral activity with mean declines from

Page 23 of 43

baseline to Day 11 in HIV-1 RNA of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 log

for dolutegravir 2 mg, 10 mg, and 50

mg once daily, respectively. This antiviral response was maintained for 3 to 4 days after the last

dose in the 50 mg group.

Effects on Electrocardiogram

Dolutegravir

In a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, 42 healthy subjects received single dose

oral administrations of placebo, dolutegravir 250 mg suspension (exposures approximately

3-fold of the 50 mg once-daily dose at steady state), and moxifloxacin (400 mg, active control) in

random sequence. Dolutegravir did not prolong the QTc interval for 24 hours post dose. After

baseline and placebo adjustment, the maximum mean QTc change based on Fridericia

correction method (QTcF) was 1.99 msec (1-sided 95% upper CI: 4.53 msec).

Effects on Renal Function

The effect of dolutegravir on serum creatinine clearance (CrCl), glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

using iohexol as the probe and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) using para-aminohippurate

(PAH) as the probe was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, 3-arm, parallel, placebo-

controlled study in 37 healthy subjects, who were administered dolutegravir 50 mg once daily

(n=12), 50 mg twice daily (n=13) or placebo once daily (n=12) for 14 days. A modest decrease

in CrCl was observed with dolutegravir within the first week of treatment, consistent with that

seen in clinical studies. Dolutegravir at both doses had no significant effect on GFR or ERPF.

These data support in vitro studies which suggest that the small increases in creatinine

observed in clinical studies are due to the nonpathologic inhibition of the organic cation

transporter 2 (OCT2) in the proximal renal tubules, which mediates the tubular secretion of

creatinine.

In the pooled analysis of GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 studies in treatment-naïve adult patients at

the week 48 analysis, TIVICAY + 3TC had an increase in the estimated GFR using cystatin C

adjusted CKD-EPI equation (adjusted mean change from baseline of 6.3 mL/min/1.73 m

Change from baseline analysis showed that urine albumin/creatinine and protein/creatinine

ratios decreased at week 48 compared to baseline in the TIVICAY + 3TC group (urine

albumin/creatinine week 48/ baseline ratio of 0.914 and protein/creatinine week 48/baseline

ratio of 0.869).

10.3

Pharmacokinetics

In a fasted comparative bioavailability study, the dolutegravir C

was equivalent and the

dolutegravir AUC

was 16% higher

when comparing the DOVATO tablet to dolutegravir 50 mg

co-administered with lamivudine 300 mg. The higher DTG AUC

does not significantly affect

patient safety or antiviral efficacy based on historical clinical efficacy and safety data for DTG 50

mg BID. The lamivudine AUC

was equivalent when comparing the DOVATO tablet to

lamivudine 300 mg co-administered with dolutegravir 50 mg. Lamivudine C

for the DOVATO

tablet was 32% higher than lamivudine 300 mg co-administered with dolutegravir 50 mg. The

higher lamivudine C

, which reflects differences in the rate of absorption but not extent of

absorption, does not significantly affect patient safety or antiviral efficacy based on historical

clinical efficacy and safety data at higher lamivudine doses/exposures.

The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the components of DOVATO are provided in Table 9.

Page 24 of 43

Table 9

Pharmacokinetic Properties of the Components of DOVATO

Dolutegravir

Lamivudine

Absorption

g.h/mL)

52.3 (31.5)

13.4 (18.1)

g/mL)

2.91 (30.6)

3.22 (29.3)

2.5 (0.5, 6.0)

1 (0.5, 3.5)

Effect of high-fat meal (relative to

fasting)

% Ratio

132.6 (118.4, 148.5)

% Ratio

91.1 (86.6, 95.9)

Distribution

% Bound to human plasma proteins

<36

Source of protein binding data

in vitro

in vitro

Blood-to-plasma ratio

0.44-0.54

1.1 - 1.2

Metabolism

Metabolic pathways

UGT1A1

CYP3A (minor)

Not significantly

metabolized

Elimination

Major route of elimination

Metabolism

Renal, by the organic

cationic transport

system

(h)

18-19

% of dose excreted as total [

C] (unchanged

drug) in urine

31 (<1)

ND (~70)

% of dose excreted as total [

C] (unchanged

drug) in feces

(53)

ND (ND)

ND: not determined

Geometric mean (CVb) except for T

which is presented as median (range)

Geometric mean ratio (fed/fasted) in PK parameters and (90% confidence interval). High-

calorie/high-fat meal = ~900 kcal, 56% fat

Lamivudine blood-to-plasma ratio (B/P) was calculated based on the percent (p) of blood

lamivudine associated with erythrocytes (53% to 57%) and the hematocrit value (H) using the

equation B/P = (1-H)(1-p)

Based on single-dose, mass-balance study of [

C] dolutegravir

Based on 24-hour urine collection obtained after oral or IV administration (NUCB1001)

Absorption: Dolutegravir and lamivudine are rapidly absorbed following oral administration.

The absolute bioavailability of dolutegravir has not been established. The absolute

bioavailability of oral lamivudine in adults is 80 to 85%. For DOVATO, the median time to

maximal plasma concentrations (t

) is 2.5 hours for dolutegravir and 1.0 hour for lamivudine,

when dosed under fasted conditions.

Following multiple oral doses of dolutegravir 50 mg once daily, the geometric mean steady state

pharmacokinetic parameter estimates are 53.6 µg.h/mL for AUC

, 3.67 µg/mL for C

, and

1.11 µg/mL for C

. Following multiple-dose oral administration of lamivudine 300 mg once daily

for seven days the mean steady-state C

is 2.04 µg/mL and the mean AUC

is 8.87 µg.h/mL.

Effect of Food on Oral Absorption

DOVATO may be administered with or without food. Administration of DOVATO with a high-fat,

high-calorie meal increased dolutegravir AUC

and C

by 32% and 21%, respectively, and

decreased the lamivudine C

by 32% compared to fasted conditions. The lamivudine AUC

was not affected by a high-fat, high-calorie meal. These changes are not clinically significant.

Page 25 of 43

Distribution: Dolutegravir is highly bound (≥ 98.9%) to human plasma proteins based on in vivo

data and binding is independent of plasma dolutegravir concentration. The apparent volume of

distribution (Vd/F) following 50 mg once daily oral administration was estimated at 17.4 L based

on population pharmacokinetic analysis. Lamivudine exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the

therapeutic dose range and displays low plasma protein binding (less than 36%).

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

In 12 treatment-naïve patients on dolutegravir plus abacavir/lamivudine, the median dolutegravir

concentration in CSF was 18 ng/mL (ranging from 4 to 23 ng/mL) 2 to 6 hours post-dose after 2

weeks of treatment. The clinical relevance of this finding has not been established. The mean

ratio of CSF/serum lamivudine concentrations 2 to 4 h after oral administration was

approximately 12%. The true extent of CNS penetration of lamivudine and its relationship with

any clinical efficacy is unknown.

Metabolism: Dolutegravir is primarily metabolized via UGT1A1 with a minor CYP3A component

(9.7% of total dose administered in a human mass balance study). Dolutegravir is the

predominant circulating compound in plasma; renal elimination of unchanged drug is low (<1%

of the dose). Metabolism of lamivudine is a minor route of elimination. Lamivudine is

predominately cleared unchanged by renal excretion. The likelihood of metabolic interactions

with lamivudine is low due to the small extent of hepatic metabolism (less than 10%).

Elimination: Dolutegravir has a terminal half-life of approximately 14 hours and an apparent

clearance (CL/F) of 0.9-1.05 L/hr based on population pharmacokinetic analyses.

Fifty-three percent of total oral dose is excreted unchanged in the faeces. It is unknown if all or

part of this is due to unabsorbed drug or biliary excretion of the glucuronidate conjugate, which

can be further degraded to form the parent compound in the gut lumen.

The observed lamivudine half life of elimination is 18 to 19 hours. For patients receiving

lamivudine 300 mg once daily, the terminal intracellular half-life of lamivudine-TP was 16 to 19

hours. The mean systemic clearance of lamivudine is approximately 0.32 L/h/kg, predominantly

by renal clearance (> 70%) via the organic cationic transport system.

Special Populations and Conditions

Pediatrics: DOVATO has not been studied in the pediatric population.

Dolutegravir: In a pediatric study including 23 antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1

infected adolescents aged 12 to 18 years of age, the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir was

evaluated in 10 adolescents and showed that dolutegravir 50 mg once daily dosage resulted in

dolutegravir exposure in pediatric subjects comparable to that observed in adults who received

dolutegravir 50 mg once daily (Table 10).

Page 26 of 43

Table 10

Pediatric pharmacokinetic parameters (n=10)

Age/weight

Dolutegravir

Dose

Dolutegravir Pharmacokinetic Parameter

Estimates

Geometric Mean (CV%)

(0-24)

g.hr/mL

g/mL

g/mL

12 to <18 years

40 kg

50 mg once

daily

46 (43)

3.49 (38)

0.90 (59)

a

One subject weighing 37 kg received 35 mg once daily.

Lamivudine: Limited data are available in adolescents receiving a daily dose of 300 mg of

lamivudine. Pharmacokinetic parameters are comparable to those reported in adults.

Geriatrics: Population pharmacokinetic analysis of dolutegravir using data in HIV-1 infected

adults showed that there was no clinically relevant effect of age on dolutegravir exposure.

Pharmacokinetic data for dolutegravir and lamivudine in subjects of >65 years old are limited.

Sex: Population pharmacokinetic analyses revealed no clinically relevant effect of gender on the

exposure of dolutegravir. No clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine

have been observed between men and women.

Pregnancy and Breast-feeding:

The pharmacokinetics of lamivudine during late pregnancy were similar to that of non-pregnant

adults. In humans, consistent with passive transmission of lamivudine across the placenta,

lamivudine concentrations in infant serum at birth were similar to those in maternal and cord

serum at delivery.

There are limited pharmacokinetic data on the use of dolutegravir in pregnancy.

Genetic Polymorphism:

In a meta-analysis using pharmacogenomics samples collected in clinical studies in healthy

subjects, subjects with UGT1A1 (n=7) genotypes conferring poor dolutegravir metabolism had a

32% lower clearance of dolutegravir and 46% higher AUC compared with subjects with

genotypes associated with normal metabolism via UGT1A1 (n=41).

Ethnic origin:

Population PK analyses using pooled pharmacokinetic data from adult studies revealed no

clinically relevant effect of race on the exposure of dolutegravir.

Hepatic Insufficiency:

Pharmacokinetic data has been obtained for dolutegravir and lamivudine alone.

Data obtained for lamivudine in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment and for

dolutegravir in patients with moderate hepatic impairment show that the pharmacokinetics are

not significantly affected by hepatic dysfunction. Dolutegravir is primarily metabolized and

Page 27 of 43

eliminated by the liver. In a study comparing 8 subjects with moderate hepatic impairment

(Child-Pugh score B) to 8 matched healthy adult controls, exposure of dolutegravir from a single

50 mg dose was similar between the two groups. The effect of severe hepatic impairment

(Child-Pugh score C) on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir has not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency:

Pharmacokinetic data have been obtained for dolutegravir and lamivudine alone. DOVATO

should not be used in patients with creatinine clearance of less than 50 mL/min because, whilst

no dosage adjustment of dolutegravir is necessary in patients with renal impairment, dose

reduction is required for the lamivudine component.

Studies with lamivudine show that plasma concentrations (AUC) are increased in patients with

renal dysfunction due to decreased clearance.

Renal clearance of unchanged drug is a minor pathway of elimination for dolutegravir. A study

of the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir was performed in subjects (n = 8) with severe renal

impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min). No clinically important pharmacokinetic differences between

subjects with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min) and matching healthy subjects were

observed. Dolutegravir AUC, C

, and C

were lower by 40%, 23%, and 43%, respectively, in

subjects with severe renal impairment as compared with matched healthy controls.

Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Co-infection:

Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that hepatitis C virus co-infection had no clinically

relevant effect on the exposure to dolutegravir. There are limited pharmacokinetic data on

hepatitis B co-infection.

11

STORAGE, STABILITY AND DISPOSAL

Store DOVATO up to 30ºC.

Healthcare professionals should recommend that their patients return all unused medications to

a pharmacy for proper disposal.

12

SPECIAL HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS

There are no special requirements for use or handling of this product.

Page 28 of 43

PART II: SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

13

PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION

Dolutegravir

Drug Substance

Common name: dolutegravir sodium

Chemical name: sodium (4R,12aS)-9-{[(2,4-difluorophenyl)methyl]carbamoyl}-4-methyl-6,8-

dioxo-3,4,6,8,12,12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1',2':4,5]pyrazino[2,1-b][1,3]oxazin-

7-olate

Molecular formula and molecular mass: C

441.36 g/mol

Structural formula:

Physicochemical properties:

Dolutegravir sodium is a white to light yellow powder and is

slightly soluble in water.

Lamivudine

Drug Substance

Proper name: lamivudine

Chemical name: 2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1-[2- (hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-

5-yl]-(2R-cis)-

Molecular formula and molecular mass: C

229.3

Structural formula:

* chiral centre

Physicochemical properties: Lamivudine is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a melting

point of 176°C and is soluble in water.

Page 29 of 43

14

CLINICAL TRIALS

14.1

Trial Design and Study Demographics

The efficacy of DOVATO is supported by data from 2 identical 148-week, Phase III, randomized,

double-blind,

multicenter, parallel-group, non-inferiority controlled trials (GEMINI-1 [204861] and

GEMINI-2 [205543]). A total of 1433 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment-naïve adult subjects

received treatment in the trials. Subjects were enrolled with a screening plasma HIV-1 RNA of

1000 c/mL to ≤ 500,000 c/mL. Subjects were randomized to a two-drug regimen of TIVICAY

(dolutegravir 50 mg) plus 3TC (lamivudine 300mg) administered once daily or to a three-drug

regimen TIVICAY (dolutegravir 50 mg) plus TRUVADA (tenofovir/emtricitabine 200mg/300mg)

administered once daily. The primary efficacy endpoint for each GEMINI trial was the proportion

of subjects with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at Week 48 (Snapshot algorithm for the ITT-

E population).

The demographic baseline characteristics were similarly distributed between treatment arms

(see Table 11).

Page 30 of 43

Table 11

Summary of Baseline Characteristics for Studies GEMINI-1, GEMINI-2, and

Pooled Data (ITT-E Population)

GEMINI-1

GEMINI-2

POOLED

TIVICAY +

3TC

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

TIVICAY +

3TC

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

TIVICAY +

3TC

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

N=356 (%)

N=358 (%)

N=360 (%)

N=359 (%)

N=716 (%)

N=717 (%)

Baseline HIV-1 RNA

(c/mL)

<100,000

282 (79)

282 (78)

294 (82)

282 (79)

576 (80)

564 (79)

≥100,000 to

<500,000

70 (20)

69 (19)

57(16)

69 (19)

127 (18)

138 (19)

≥500,000

4 (1)

7 (2)

9 (3)

8 (2)

13 (2)

15 (2)

Baseline CD4+

(log

10

cells/mm

3

)

Median

427.0

435.5

427.5

442.0

427.0

438.0

Min., Max.

19, 1399

19, 1305

19, 1364

19, 1497

19, 1399

19, 1497

Baseline CD4+

(cells/mm

3

), n (%)

<50

5 (1)

4 (1)

3 (<1)

5 (1)

8 (1)

9 (1)

50 to <200

26 (7)

25 (7)

29 (8)

20 (6)

55 (8)

45 (6)

200 to <350

92 (26)

79 (22)

87 (24)

87 (24)

179 (25)

166 (23)

350 to <500

99 (28)

120 (34)

105 (29)

108 (30)

204 (28)

228 (32)

134 (38)

130 (36)

136 (38)

139 (39)

270 (38)

269 (38)

Age (y) median

(range)

32.0

(18-69)

33.0

(18-66)

32.0

(18-72)

33.0

(18-70)

32.0

(18-72)

33.0

(18-70)

Sex

Female

59 (17)

52 (15)

54 (15)

46 (13)

113 (16)

98 (14)

Male

297 (83)

306 (85)

306 (85)

313 (87)

603 (84)

619 (86)

Race, n (%)

American Indian or

Alaska Native

28 (8)

28 (8)

21 (6)

24 (7)

49 (7)

52 (7)

Asian

37 (10)

42 (12)

34 (9)

30 (8)

71 (10)

72 (10)

Black/African

American

44 (12)

36 (10)

55 (15)

40 (11)

99 (14)

76 (11)

Native Hawaiian or

other Pacific Islander

2 (<1)

5 (1)

2 (<1)

5 (<1)

White

243 (68)

248 (70)

237 (65)

249 (69)

480 (67)

497 (69)

Multiple Heritage

2 (<1)

4 (1)

13 (4)

11 (3)

15 (2)

15 (2)

Hepatitis B & C Test

Results

B only

C only

26 (7)

28 (8)

13 (4)

21 (6)

39 (5)

49 (7)

B and C

Neither

329 (92)

330 (92)

347 (96)

338 (94)

676 (94)

668 (93)

Missing

1 (<1)

1 (<1)

CDC Category

Stage 0

1 (<1)

1 (<1)

1 (<1)

1 (<1)

Stage 1

128 (36)

126 (35)

129 (36)

137 (38)

257 (36)

263 (37)

Stage 2

194 (54)

204 (57)

198 (55)

189 (53)

392 (55)

393 (55)

Stage 3

33 (9)

28 (8)

33 (9)

32 (9)

66 (9)

60 (8)

TIVICAY = dolutegravir, 3TC = lamivudine, TRUVADA = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine

Page 31 of 43

14.2

Study Results

At week 48, TIVICAY plus 3TC was non-inferior to TIVICAY plus TRUVADA in GEMINI-1 and

GEMINI-2 studies. This was supported by the pooled analysis, see Table 12.

Table 12

Virologic Outcomes of Randomized Treatment at Week 48 (Snapshot

Algorithm, ITT-E Population)

GEMINI-1

GEMINI-2

GEMINI-1 and

GEMINI-2

Pooled Data*

TIVICAY +

3TC

(N=356)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(N=358)

n (%)

TIVICAY

+ 3TC

(N=360)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(N=359)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

3TC

(N=716)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(N=717)

n (%)

HIV-1 RNA <50

copies/mL

(320/356)

(332/358)

(335/360)

(337/359)

(655/716)

(669/717)

Treatment Difference

(95%

confidence intervals)

-2.6%

(95% CI: -6.7%, 1.5%)

-0.7%

(95% CI: -4.3%, 2.9%)

-1.7%

(95% CI: -4.4%, 1.1%)

Virologic non response

13 (4%)

6 (2%)

7 (2%)

7 (2%)

20 (3%)

13 (2%)

Reasons

Data in window and ≥50

copies/mL

6 (2%)

3 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

8 (1%)

5 (<1%)

Discontinued for lack of

efficacy

3 (<1%)

1 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

1 (<1%)

5 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

Discontinued for other

reasons and ≥50

copies/mL

3 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

3 (<1%)

5 (<1%)

5 (<1%)

Change in ART

1 (<1%)

1 (<1%)

1 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

1 (<1%)

No virologic data at

Week 48 window

23 (6%)

20 (6%)

18 (5%)

15 (4%)

41 (6%)

35 (5%)

Reasons

Discontinued study due

to adverse event or

death

5 (1%)

9 (3%)

5 (1%)

4 (1%)

10 (1%)

13 (2%)

Discontinued study for

other reasons

17 (5%)

11 (3%)

12 (3%)

11 (3%)

29 (4%)

22 (3%)

Missing data during

window but on study

1 (<1%)

1 (<1%)

2 (<1%)

HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL by baseline covariates

n/N (%)

n/N (%)

Baseline Plasma Viral

Load (copies/mL)

≤100,000

255 / 282

(90%)

263 / 282

(93%)

271 / 294

(92%)

268 / 282

(95%)

526 / 576

(91%)

531 / 564

(94%)

>100,000

65 / 74

(88%)

69 / 76

(91%)

64 / 66

(97%)

69 / 77

(90%)

129 / 140

(92%)

138 / 153

(90%)

Baseline CD4+ (cells/

mm

3

)

≤200

25 / 31

(81%)

26 / 29

(90%)

25 / 32

(78%)

25 / 26

(96%)

50 / 63

(79%)

51 / 55

(93%)

>200

295 / 325

(91%)

306 / 329

(93%)

310 / 328

(95%)

312 / 333

(94%)

605 / 653

(93%)

618 / 662

(93%)

Page 32 of 43

GEMINI-1

GEMINI-2

GEMINI-1 and

GEMINI-2

Pooled Data*

TIVICAY +

3TC

(N=356)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(N=358)

n (%)

TIVICAY

+ 3TC

(N=360)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(N=359)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

3TC

(N=716)

n (%)

TIVICAY +

TRUVADA

(N=717)

n (%)

Gender

Male

268 / 297

(90%)

283 / 306

(92%)

287 / 306

(94%)

297 / 313

(95%)

555 / 603

(92%)

580 / 619

(94%)

Female

52 / 59

(88%)

49 / 52

(94%)

48 / 54

(89%)

40 / 46

(87%)

100 / 113

(88%)

89 / 98

(91%)

Race

White

219 / 243

(90%)

232 / 248

(94%)

228 / 237

(96%)

239 / 249

(69%)

447 / 480

(93%)

471 / 497

(95%)

African-American/African

Heritage/Asian/Other

101 / 113

(89%)

100 / 110

(91%)

107 / 123

(87%)

98 / 110

(89%)

208 / 236

(88%)

198 / 220

(90%)

Age (years)

<50

294 / 327

(90%)

292 / 312

(94%)

303 / 324

(94%)

305 / 325

(94%)

597 / 651

(92%)

597 / 637

(94%)

26 / 29

(90%)

40 / 46

(87%)

32 / 36

(89%)

32 / 34

(94%)

58 / 65

(89%)

72 / 80

(90%)

TIVICAY = dolutegravir, 3TC = lamivudine, TRUVADA = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine

* The results of the pooled analysis are in line with those of the individual studies, for which the primary endpoint

(difference in proportion <50 copies/mL plasma HIV-1 RNA at Week 48 based on the Snapshot algorithm for

TIVICAY plus 3TC versus TIVICAY plus TRUVADA) was met. The adjusted difference was -2.6 (95% CI: -6.7; 1.5)

for GEMINI-1 and -0.7 (95% CI: -4.3; 2.9) for GEMINI-2 with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 10%.

† Based on CMH-stratified analysis adjusting for the following baseline stratification factors: Plasma HIV-1 RNA

(≤100,000 c/mL vs. >100,000 c/mL) and CD4+ cell count (≤200 cells/mm

vs. >200 cells/mm

). Pooled analysis

also stratified by study. Assessed using a non-inferiority margin of 10%.

With the exception of one patient treated with TIVICAY plus 3TC in GEMINI-1 who was withdrawn due to confirmed

loss of virologic response, none of the patients treated with TIVICAY plus 3TC who did not have HIV-1 RNA < 50

copies/mL at Week 48 (based on Snapshot Algorithm) were discontinued for treatment-related reasons by Week

48. A patient in GEMINI-1 whose last HIV-1 RNA was 64,366 copies per/mL was lost to follow up.

N = Number of subjects in each treatment group

The adjusted mean change from baseline in CD4+ cell count based on the pooled analysis at

Week 48 was 224 cells/mm

for the group receiving DOVATO, and 217 cells/mm

for the

TIVICAY + TRUVADA group.

Virologic outcomes by baseline CD4+ (cells/mm

) in GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 are shown in

Table 12. In both studies, lower response rates (HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL) were observed in

patients with baseline CD4+ ≤ 200 cells/mm

. These findings were seen irrespective of baseline

plasma HIV-1 RNA.

Adolescents

There are no clinical study data with DOVATO in the adolescent population. However, the

safety and efficacy of DOVATO in adolescents 12 years of age and older, and weighting at least

40 kg, is supported by the clinical trial data from prior adolescent studies of dolutegravir or

lamivudine available in the respective TIVICAY, 3TC and TRIUMEQ product monographs, and

also by clinical data from the GEMINI trials with dolutegravir plus lamivudine in adults.

Page 33 of 43

14.3

Comparative Bioavailability Studies

A single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study was conducted in

healthy, adult male and female volunteers (n=76; 50 males and 26 females) to evaluate the

comparative bioavailability of an oral 1 x DOVATO (50 mg dolutegravir/300 mg lamivudine) fixed

dose combination tablet versus concurrent oral administration of 1 x Dolutegravir 50 mg tablet

and EPIVIR (lamivudine 300 mg) tablet under fasting conditions. The effect of a high-fat, high-

calorie meal on the bioavailability of the fixed dose combination tablet was also evaluated in a

sub-set of the volunteers (n=16; 10 males and 6 females). The comparative bioavailability

results from 74 completed subjects (49 males and 25 females) are summarized in tabular format

below.

Table 13

Summary of the Comparative Bioavailability Data for Dolutegravir

Dolutegravir

(1 x 50 mg)

FASTED CONDITIONS

From measured data

Geometric Mean

Arithmetic Mean (CV %)

Parameter

Test

1

Reference

2

% Ratio of

Geometric

Means

90% Confidence

Interval

g.h/mL)

52.3

54.8 (30.5)

45.2

48.4 (36.9)

115.8

(107.2, 125.1)

g.h/mL)

54.6

57.2 (31.2)

47.2

50.8 (37.8)

115.5

(107.0, 124.7)

g/mL)

2.91

3.04 (28.7)

2.55

2.70 (32.1)

114.1

(105.3, 123.6)

2.50

(0.500, 6.00)

2.50

(0.500, 5.01)

15.2 (18.1)

15.4 (17.8)

DOVATO (50 mg dolutegravir/300 mg lamivudine) fixed-dose combination tablets.

Dolutegravir 50 mg tablet and lamivudine 300 mg tablet, administered concurrently.

Expressed as median (range) only.

Expressed as the arithmetic mean (CV%) only.

Page 34 of 43

Table 14

Summary of the Comparative Bioavailability Data for Lamivudine

Lamivudine

(1 x 300 mg)

FASTED CONDITIONS

From measured data

Geometric Mean

Arithmetic Mean (CV %)

Parameter

Test

1

Reference

2

% Ratio of

Geometric

Means

90% Confidence

Interval

g.h/mL)

13.4

13.6 (17.9)

12.5

12.7 (18.9)

107.0

(104.6, 109.5)

g.h/mL)

13.6

13.8 (17.6)

12.8

13.0 (18.2)

106.4

(104.2, 108.7)

g/mL)

3.22

3.44 (28.4)

2.44

2.53 (26.7)

131.8

(126.2, 137.6)

1.00

(0.500, 3.50)

1.00

(0.500, 4.00)

19.5 (31.1)

20.1 (33.5)

DOVATO (50 mg dolutegravir/300 mg lamivudine) fixed-dose combination tablets.

Dolutegravir 50 mg tablet and lamivudine 300 mg tablet, administered concurrently.

n=73. One subject was excluded from the statistical analysis of AUC

because >20% of AUC

extrapolated and λz time duration <2x calculated t

Expressed as median (range).

Expressed as the arithmetic mean (CV%) only.

Page 35 of 43

15

MICROBIOLOGY

Antiviral Activity in cell culture

Dolutegravir

Dolutegravir exhibited antiviral activity against laboratory strains of wild-type HIV-1 with mean

values of 0.51 nM to 2.1 nM in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and MT-4

cells.

In a viral integrase susceptibility assay using the integrase coding region from 13 clinically

diverse clade B isolates, dolutegravir demonstrated antiviral potency similar to reference

laboratory strains, with a mean EC

of 0.52 nM. When tested in PBMC assays against a panel

consisting of 24 HIV-1 clinical isolates [group M (clade A, B, C, D, E, F and G) and group O] and

3 HIV-2 clinical isolates, the geometric mean EC

was 0.20 nM and EC

values ranged from

0.02 to 2.14 nM for HIV-1, while the geometric mean EC

was 0.18 nM and EC

values ranged

from 0.09 to 0.61 nM for HIV-2 isolates.

Lamivudine

The antiviral activity of lamivudine against HIV-1 was assessed in a number of cell lines

including monocytes and PBMCs using standard susceptibility assays. EC50 values were in the

range of 0.003 µM to 2 µM (1 μM = 0.23 µg/mL). The EC50 values of lamivudine against

different HIV-1 clades (A to G) ranged from 0.001 to 0.120 µM, and against HIV-2 isolates from

0.002 to 0.041 µM in PBMCs. Ribavirin (50µM) decreased the anti-HIV-1 activity of lamivudine

by 3.5-fold in MT-4 cells.

Antiviral Activity in combination with other antiviral agents

Dolutegravir

The following drugs were not antagonistic with dolutegravir in in-vitro assessments conducted in

checkerboard format: stavudine, abacavir, efavirenz, nevirapine, lopinavir, amprenavir,

enfuvirtide, maraviroc, adefovir and raltegravir. In addition, the anti-HCV drug ribavirin had no

apparent effect on dolutegravir activity.

Lamivudine

No antagonistic effects in vitro were seen with lamivudine and other antiretrovirals (tested

agents: abacavir, didanosine, nevirapine, zalcitabine, and zidovudine).

Effect of Human Serum and Serum Proteins

In vitro studies suggested a 75-fold shift in EC

of dolutegravir in the presence of 100% human

serum (by method of extrapolation), and the protein adjusted EC

(PA-EC

) in PBMCs for

dolutegravir was estimated to be 0.064

g/mL. Dolutegravir trough concentration for a single

50 mg dose in integrase inhibitor naïve patients was 1.20

g/mL, 19 times higher than the

estimated PA-EC

. Lamivudine exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the therapeutic dose

range and displays low plasma protein binding (less than 36%).

Page 36 of 43

Resistance in vitro and in vivo (dolutegravir)

Isolation from wild type HIV-1 and activity against resistant strains

Viruses highly resistant to dolutegravir were not observed during the 112 day passage of strain

IIIB, with a 4.1-fold maximum fold change (FC) observed for the passaged resistant virus

populations with substitutions at the conserved IN positions S153Y and S153F.

Passage of the wild type HIV-1 strain NL432 in the presence of dolutegravir selected for E92Q

(passage population virus FC=3.1) and G193E (passage population virus FC=3.2) substitutions

on Day 56. Additional passage of wildtype subtype B, C, and A/G viruses in the presence of

dolutegravir selected for R263K (site-directed mutant FC = 1.5), G118R (site-directed mutant

FC = 10), and S153T.

Treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected subjects receiving dolutegravir

No INI-resistant mutations or treatment emergent resistance to the NRTI backbone therapy

were isolated with dolutegravir 50 mg once daily in treatment–naive studies.

Resistance in vitro and in vivo (lamivudine)

HIV-1 resistance to lamivudine involves the development of a M184I or M184V amino acid

change close to the active site of the viral RT. This variant arises both during in vitro selection

and in HIV-1 infected patients treated with lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy. M184V

mutants display greatly reduced susceptibility to lamivudine and show diminished viral

replicative capacity in vitro.

Resistance in vivo (dolutegravir plus lamivudine)

No subjects that met the protocol-defined confirmed virologic withdrawal (CVW) criteria across

the pooled GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 studies through Week 48 had emergent INSTI or NRTI

resistance substitutions.

Cross-resistance

Cross resistance between lamivudine and antiretrovirals from other classes (e.g. protease

inhibitors (PI) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)), is unlikely.

Site-directed INSTI mutant virus

Dolutegravir activity was determined against a panel of 60 INSTI-resistant site-directed mutant

HIV-1 viruses (28 with single substitutions and 32 with 2 or more substitutions). The single

INSTI-resistance substitutions T66K, I151L, and S153Y conferred a greater than 2-fold

decrease in dolutegravir susceptibility (range: 2.3-fold to 3.6-fold from reference). Combinations

of multiple substitutions T66K/L74M, E92Q/N155H, G140C/Q148R, G140S/Q148H, R or K,

Q148R/N155H, T97A/G140S/Q148, and substitutions at E138/G140/Q148 showed a greater

than 2-fold decrease in dolutegravir susceptibility (range: 2.5-fold to 21-fold from reference).

Recombinant resistant clinical isolates

Dolutegravir activity was measured for 705 raltegravir resistant recombinant isolates from

clinical practice; 93.9% (662/705) of the isolates had a dolutegravir FC ≤10 and 1.8% had a

DTG FC >25. Mutants with Y143 and N155 pathway had mean FCs of 1.2 and 1.5, respectively,

while Q148 + 1 mutant and Q148 + ≥2 mutants mean FCs were 4.8 and 6.0, respectively.

Page 37 of 43

Cross-resistance conferred by the M184V reverse transcriptase

Cross-resistance is limited within the nucleoside inhibitor class of antiretroviral agents.

Zidovudine and stavudine maintain their antiretroviral activities against lamivudine-resistant HIV-

1. Abacavir and tenofovir maintain antiretroviral activity against lamivudine-resistant HIV-1

harbouring only the M184V mutation.

16

NON-CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

Carcinogenesis/mutagenesis

Dolutegravir was not mutagenic or clastogenic using in vitro tests in bacteria and cultured

mammalian cells, and an in vivo rodent micronucleus assay. Dolutegravir was not carcinogenic

in long term studies in the mouse and rat.

Lamivudine was not mutagenic in bacterial tests, but like many nucleoside analogues it shows

activity in the in vitro mammalian tests such as the mouse lymphoma assay. This is consistent

with the known activity of other nucleoside analogues. The results from two in vivo rat

micronucleus tests with lamivudine were negative.

Lamivudine did not show any genotoxic activity in additional in vivo studies in rats (metaphase

analysis of bone marrow and unscheduled DNA synthesis). The results of long-term

carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats did not show any carcinogenic potential at exposures

approximately 11 to 65 times higher than human clinical exposure based on AUC.

Reproductive Toxicology

In a peri-/post-natal/juvenile toxicity study with lamivudine in rats, some histological

inflammatory changes at the ano-rectal junction and slight diffuse epithelial hyperplasia of the

cecum were observed in dams and pups at the high-dose level. An increased incidence of

urination upon handling was also seen in some offspring at exposures >50 times the human

clinical exposure based on C

. In addition, a reduction in testes weight was observed in

juvenile males (at exposures >125 times the human clinical exposure based on C

) which was

associated with slight to moderate dilatation of the seminiferous tubules.

Fertility

Fertility studies in the rat have shown that dolutegravir and lamivudine had no effect on male or

female fertility. Dolutegravir did not affect male or female fertility in rats at doses up to 1000

mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested (33 times the 50 mg human clinical exposure, based on

AUC). Lamivudine did not affect male or female fertility in rats at doses up to 2000 mg/kg BID,

the highest dose tested (>90 times the 300 mg human clinical exposure, based on AUC).

17

SUPPORTING PRODUCT MONOGRAPHS

3TC (tablets, 300 mg 150 mg; oral solution, 10 mg/mL; lamivudine), submission control

#202946, Product Monograph, ViiV Healthcare ULC. (May 12, 2017)

TIVICAY (tablets, 10, 25, and 50 mg dolutegravir), submission control #217790, Product

Monograph, ViiV Healthcare ULC. (August 27, 2018).

Page 38 of 43

READ THIS FOR SAFE AND EFFECTIVE USE OF YOUR MEDICINE

PATIENT MEDICATION INFORMATION

DOVATO

dolutegravir and lamivudine tablets

Read this carefully before you start taking DOVATO and each time you get a refill. This leaflet is

a summary and will not tell you everything about this drug. Talk to your healthcare professional

about your medical condition and treatment and ask if there is any new information about

DOVATO.

What is DOVATO used for?

DOVATO is used to treat HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in adults and

adolescents over the age of 12 years and weighing at least 40 kg.

How does DOVATO work?

DOVATO contains two medicines that are used to treat HIV infection: Dolutegravir and

Lamivudine.

These medicines work together to reduce the amount of virus in your body and keep it at a low

level. This helps maintain the number of CD4+ cell count in your blood. CD4+ cells are a type of

white blood cells that are important in helping your body to fight infection. DOVATO does not

cure HIV infection.

What are the ingredients in DOVATO?

Medicinal ingredients: 50 mg dolutegravir (as dolutegravir sodium), 300 mg lamivudine.

Non-medicinal ingredients: hypromellose, macrogol / PEG, magnesium stearate, mannitol

(E421), microcrystalline cellulose, povidone (K29/32), sodium starch glycolate, sodium stearyl

fumarate, titanium dioxide

DOVATO comes in the following dosage forms:

50 mg dolutegravir / 300 mg lamivudine fixed dose combination tablets.

Do not use DOVATO if:

You are allergic (hypersensitive) to dolutegravir (TIVICAY, TRIUMEQ or JULUCA) or

lamivudine (3TC, KIVEXA, COMBIVIR, TRIZIVIR or TRIUMEQ) or to any of the other

ingredients of DOVATO. See “What are the ingredients in DOVATO?”.

You are taking dofetilide (to treat heart conditions).

You are taking fampridine (also known as dalfampridine) used to treat multiple sclerosis.

Serious Warnings and Precautions

Worsening of hepatitis B virus in people who have HIV-1 infection

If you have a hepatitis B infection, you should not stop taking DOVATO without talking to your

doctor. If you have to stop taking DOVATO your hepatitis may worsen. Your doctor will

monitor your liver function for several months and may give you a new medication to treat your

hepatitis B infection.

Page 39 of 43

To help avoid side effects and ensure proper use, talk to your healthcare professional

before you take DOVATO. Talk about any health conditions or problems you may have,

including if you:

have had kidney or liver problems, including hepatitis B or C infection.

have ever had a severe skin rash when taking dolutegravir (TIVICAY, TRIUMEQ or

JULUCA) or lamivudine (3TC, KIVEXA, COMBIVIR, TRIZIVIR or TRIUMEQ).

have ever had high levels of acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).

have ever had an increase in your blood sugar (glucose) or levels of fats (lipids) in your

blood.

you have symptoms of an infection or inflammation, as these may flare up while on HIV

treatment or you may have even stronger reactions to new infections than you would

normally have.

Other warnings you should know about:

Pregnancy

Talk to your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Your doctor will consider the

benefit to you and the risk to your baby when taking DOVATO while you are pregnant.

Taking DOVATO at the time of becoming pregnant or during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy

may increase the risk of a type of birth defect called neural tube defect such as spina bifida

(malformed spinal cord).

In babies and infants exposed to one of the ingredients in DOVATO during pregnancy or

labour, small temporary increases in blood levels of a substance called lactate have been

observed. There have also been very rare reports of diseases that affect the nervous

system such as delayed development and seizures.

There is a registry for women who take antiretroviral medicines during pregnancy. The

purpose of this registry is to collect information about the health of you and your baby. Talk

to your healthcare professional about how you can take part in this registry.

If you could get pregnant while taking DOVATO, you need to use a reliable method of birth

control to prevent pregnancy.

Breastfeeding

Do not breastfeed while taking DOVATO. There is a risk of passing HIV-1 to your baby if you

breastfeed. DOVATO can also be passed through breast milk and harm your baby. If you are

breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed, talk with your healthcare professional about the best

way to feed your baby.

Infecting others with HIV

DOVATO will not stop you from passing HIV to others, although this risk is lower if you take your

HIV medicine as instructed by your healthcare professional. You should take steps to avoid this

by:

Using condoms when you have oral or penetrative sex.

Not reusing or sharing needles, syringes, or other injection equipment.

Tell your healthcare professional about all the medicines you take, including any drugs,

vitamins, minerals, natural supplements or alternative medicines.

The following may interact with DOVATO:

antacids to treat indigestion and heartburn and laxatives to treat constipation.

Some antacids and laxatives can stop DOVATO from being absorbed into your body and

not make it work as well.

DOVATO should be taken at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after you take an antacid or

Page 40 of 43

laxative.

Other acid-lowering medicines like ranitidine and omeprazole can be taken at the same

time as DOVATO.

calcium and iron supplements (non-antacids).

Taking these supplements at the same time as DOVATO can stop DOVATO from being

absorbed into your body and not make it work as well.

DOVATO should be taken at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after you take these

supplements.

You can take supplements containing calcium or iron at the same time as DOVATO if

you take both with food.

metformin, to treat diabetes

rifampin, to treat some bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis (TB)

phenytoin and phenobarbital, to treat epilepsy

oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine, to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder

St. John’s wort, (Hypericum perforatum), a herbal remedy to treat depression

sorbitol-containing medicines (usually liquids) used regularly

trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

Talk to your healthcare professional for further advice if you are taking any of these medicines.

For some of these medicines, your healthcare professional may need to adjust the dose of one

of your medicines in order for it to work properly.

How to take DOVATO:

Always take DOVATO every day exactly as your doctor has told you to. DOVATO can be taken

with or without food. Check with your healthcare professional if you're not sure.

Usual dose:

The usual dose of DOVATO in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older and weighing

at least 40 kg is one tablet taken once a day.

Take DOVATO for as long as your doctor recommends. Don’t stop unless your doctor advises

you to.

Overdose:

If you think you have taken too much DOVATO, contact your healthcare professional, hospital

emergency department or regional poison control centre immediately, even if there are no

symptoms.

Missed Dose:

If you miss a dose, take DOVATO as soon as you remember. If your next dose is due within 4

hours, skip the dose you missed and take the next one at the usual time. Then continue your

treatment as before. Don't take a double dose to make up for a missed dose.

What are possible side effects from using DOVATO?

These are not all the possible side effects you may feel when taking DOVATO. If you

experience any side effects not listed here, contact your healthcare professional.

Page 41 of 43

The most common side effects of DOVATO are:

Headache

Diarrhea

Drowsiness

Feeling sick (nausea)

Trouble sleeping (insomnia)

Additional side effects that may occur include: itching (pruritus), any new infection, kidney

problems, being sick (vomiting), stomach pain (abdominal pain), stomach (abdominal)

discomfort, intestinal gas (flatulence), fever, feeling tired, muscle pain, dizziness, abnormal

dreams, feeling sleepy, depression (feelings of deep sadness and unworthiness) and anxiety.

Serious side effects and what to do about them

Symptom / effect

Talk to your healthcare professional

Stop taking drug

and get immediate

medical help

Only if severe

In all cases

UNCOMMON

Allergic (hypersensitivity)

reactions:

Skin rash, fever, lack of

energy, swelling of the mouth

or face causing difficulty in

breathing, muscle or joint

aches

Blood problems:

Low red blood cell count

(Anemia)

lack of energy,

breathlessness

Low white blood cell count

(neutropenia)

Increased chance of

infection

Low platelets

(thrombocytopenia)

Increased chance of

bruising

Liver problems and blood test

results:

Inflammation (Hepatitis)

Bilirubin increase (substance

produced by liver)

Increase of muscle enzymes

(CPK)

Increase in a kidney function

blood test result (creatinine)

Page 42 of 43

Serious side effects and what to do about them

Symptom / effect

Talk to your healthcare professional

Stop taking drug

and get immediate

medical help

Only if severe

In all cases

RARE

High level of acid in the blood

(Lactic Acidosis)

Deep, fast, or hard to catch a

breath (hard to breathe)

Numbness/weakness of arms

or legs

Swollen/enlarged liver

Feeling sick (nausea), being

sick (vomiting), stomach pain

Liver failure:

Extremely high liver blood

test results

Yellowing of the skin and the

whites of the eyes

Dark/tea coloured urine

Pale coloured stools/ bowel

movements

Nausea/vomiting

Loss of appetite

Pain, aching/tenderness on

right side below ribs

Suicidal thoughts or actions

(mainly in patients who have

had depression or mental health

problems before)

If you have a troublesome symptom or side effect that is not listed here or becomes bad enough

to interfere with your daily activities, talk to your healthcare professional.

Reporting Side Effects

You can report any suspected side effects associated with the use of health products to

Health Canada by:

Visiting the Web page on Adverse Reaction Reporting

(https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/medeffect-

canada/adverse-reaction-reporting.html)

for information on how to report online, by

mail or by fax; or

Calling toll-free at 1-866-234-2345.

NOTE: Contact your health professional if you need information about how to manage your

side effects. The Canada Vigilance Program does not provide medical advice.

Page 43 of 43

Storage:

Store DOVATO up to 30°C.

Keep out of reach and sight of children.

Proper disposal:

Do not throw any medicines away in the garbage, down the sink drain or in the toilet. Give all

unused medicines to your local pharmacy for proper disposal. This will help to protect the

environment.

If you want more information about DOVATO:

Talk to your healthcare professional

Find the full product monograph that is prepared for healthcare professionals and

includes this Patient Medication Information by visiting the Health Canada website

(http://hc-sc.gc.ca/index-eng.php); the manufacturer’s website www.viivhealthcare.ca, or

by calling 1-877-393-8448.

This leaflet was prepared by ViiV Healthcare ULC

Last Revised February 5, 2020

©

2020 ViiV Healthcare group of companies or its licensor

Trademarks are owned by or licensed to the ViiV Healthcare group of companies

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