Clopidogrel Sandoz

New Zealand - English - Medsafe (Medicines Safety Authority)

Buy It Now

Active ingredient:
Clopidogrel bisulfate 97.875 mg equivalent to 75 mg clopidogrel;  
Available from:
Novartis New Zealand Ltd
INN (International Name):
Clopidogrel bisulfate 97.875 mg (equivalent to 75 mg clopidogrel)
Dosage:
75 mg
Pharmaceutical form:
Film coated tablet
Composition:
Active: Clopidogrel bisulfate 97.875 mg equivalent to 75 mg clopidogrel   Excipient: Hydrogenated vegetable oil Hyprolose Mannitol Microcrystalline cellulose Opacode black S-1-17823 Opadry Pink Purified water
Units in package:
Blister pack, Al/Al, 28 tablets
Class:
Prescription
Prescription type:
Prescription
Manufactured by:
Dr Reddy's Laboratories Limited
Therapeutic indications:
Prevention of vascular ischaemia associated with atherothrombotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke and vascular death) in patients with a history of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease.
Product summary:
Package - Contents - Shelf Life: Blister pack, Al/Al - 28 tablets - 2 years from date of manufacture stored at or below 25°C
Authorization number:
TT50-8567
Authorization date:
2010-05-07

NEW ZEALAND DATASHEET

Clopidogrel Sandoz

®

Clopidogrel film-coated tablets 75mg

Name of the medicine

Generic name: Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate

Chemical name:

Methyl (+)-(S)-α-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c] pyridine-5(4H)-acetate

sulfate (1:1)

CAS:

120202-66-6 (Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate)

113 665-84-2 (Clopidogrel base)

Empirical formula:

ClNO

419.9

Description

Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate is a white to off-white powder. It is practically insoluble in water at neutral

pH but freely soluble at pH 1. It is freely soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in methylene chloride

and is practically insoluble in ethyl ether. It has a specific optical rotation of about + 56°.

Each tablet contains mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydrogenated

vegetable oil, Opadry Pink 03B54942 and Opacode S-1-17823 Black.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Clopidogrel is a specific and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Platelets have an established role

in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic disease and thrombotic events. Long term use of anti-platelet

drugs has shown consistent benefit in the prevention of ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and

vascular death in patients at increased risk of such outcomes, including those with established

atherosclerosis or a history of atherothrombosis.

Clopidogrel selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor, and

the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet

aggregation. Biotransformation of clopidogrel is necessary to produce inhibition of platelet

aggregation. The active metabolite, a thiol derivative, is formed by oxidation of clopidogrel to 2-

oxoclopidogrel and subsequent hydrolysis. The active thiol metabolite, which has been isolated in

vitro, binds rapidly and irreversibly to platelet ADP receptors, P2Y12, thus inhibiting platelet

aggregation. Clopidogrel also inhibits platelet aggregation induced by other agonists by blocking the

amplification of platelet activation by released ADP. Due to the irreversible binding, platelets exposed

are affected for the remainder of their lifespan and recovery of normal platelet function occurs at a rate

consistent with platelet turnover (approximately 7 days).

Statistically significant and dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation was noted 2 hours after

single oral doses of clopidogrel. Repeated doses of 75mg per day produced substantial inhibition of

ADP-induced platelet aggregation from the first day; this increased progressively and reached steady

state between Day 3 and Day 7. At steady state, the average inhibition level observed with a dose of

75mg per day was between 40% and 60%. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time gradually returned

to baseline values, generally within 7 days after treatment was discontinued.

Pharmacokinetics

After repeated oral doses of 75mg per day, a single oral dose of clopidogrel is rapidly absorbed.

However, plasma concentrations of the parent compound are very low and below the quantification

limit (0.00025mg/L) beyond 2 hours. Absorption is at least 50%, based on urinary excretion of

clopidogrel metabolites.

Clopidogrel is extensively metabolised by the liver and the main metabolite, which is inactive, is the

carboxylic acid derivative which represents about 85% of the circulating compound in plasma. Peak

plasma levels of this metabolite (approx. 3mg/L after repeated 75mg oral doses) occurred

approximately 1 hour after dosing.

The kinetics of the main circulating metabolite were linear (plasma concentrations increased in

proportion to dose) in the dose range of 50 to 150mg of clopidogrel.

Clopidogrel and the main circulating metabolite bind reversibly in vitro to human plasma proteins (98%

and 94% respectively). The binding is non saturable in vitro over a wide concentration range.

Following an oral dose of

C-labelled clopidogrel in man, approximately 50% was excreted in the

urine and approximately 46% in the faeces in the 120 hour interval after dosing. The elimination half-

life of the main circulating metabolite was 8 hours after single and repeated administration.

Plasma concentrations of the main circulating metabolite were significantly higher in elderly subjects (≥

75 years) as compared to young healthy volunteers. However, these higher plasma levels were not

associated with differences in platelet aggregation and bleeding time.

Plasma levels of the main circulating metabolite were lower in subjects with severe renal disease

(creatinine clearance from 5 to 15mL/min) compared to subjects with moderate renal disease

(creatinine clearance from 30 to 60mL/min) and healthy subjects, after repeated doses of 75mg/day.

Although inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was lower (25%) than that observed in healthy

subjects, the prolongation of bleeding was similar to that seen in healthy subjects receiving 75mg of

clopidogrel per day.

Administration of a single dose of 75mg clopidogrel to healthy subjects under fasting conditions

achieved a mean peak plasma concentration of clopidogrel of 605.65pg/mL within 0.76 hours for

Clopidogrel Sandoz and 635.81pg/mL within 0.90 hours for a reference clopidogrel film-coated tablet

product. The mean AUC

0-inf

was 978.80pg

h/mL for Clopidogrel Sandoz and 1067.41pg

h/mL for a

reference clopidogrel film-coated tablet product. The elimination half-life of clopidogrel was 4.5 hours

after single administration of Clopidogrel Sandoz.

Pharmacogenetics

CYP2C19 is involved in the formation of both the active metabolite and the 2-oxo-clopidogrel

intermediate metabolite. Clopidogrel active metabolite pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effects, as

measured by ex vivo platelet aggregation assays, differ according to CYP2C19 genotype. Genetic

variants of other CYP450 enzymes may also affect the formation of clopidogrel’s active metabolite.

The CYP2C19*1 allele corresponds to fully functional metabolism while the CYP2C19*2 and *3 alleles

are nonfunctional. CYP2C19*2 and *3 account for the majority of reduced function alleles in white

(85%) and Asian (99%) poor metabolizers. Other alleles associated with absent or reduced

metabolism are less frequent, and include, but are not limited to, CYP2C19*4, *5, *6, *7, and *8. A

patient with poor metabolizer status will possess two loss of function alleles as defined above.

Published frequencies for poor CYP2C19 metabolizer genotypes are approximately 2% for whites, 4%

for blacks and 14% for Chinese and are listed in the table below. Tests are available to determine a

patient’s CYP2C19 genotype.

CYP2C19 Phenotype and Genotype Frequency

Frequency (%)

White

(n=1356)

Black

(n=966)

Chinese

(n=573)

Extensive metabolism: CYP2C19*1/*1

Intermediate metabolism: CYP2C19*1/*2 or *1/*3

Poor metabolism: CYP2C19*2/*2, *2/*3 or *3/*3

A crossover study in 40 healthy subjects, 10 each in the four CYP2C19 metaboliser groups (ultrarapid,

extensive, intermediate and poor), evaluated pharmacokinetic and antiplatelet responses using 300

mg followed by 75 mg/day and 600 mg followed by 150 mg/day, each for a total of 5 days (steady

state). No substantial differences in active metabolite exposure and mean inhibition of platelet

aggregation (IPA) were observed between ultrarapid, extensive and intermediate metabolisers. In poor

metabolisers, active metabolite exposure was decreased by 63-71% compared to extensive

metabolisers. After the 300 mg/75 mg dose regimen, antiplatelet responses were decreased in the

poor metabolisers with mean IPA (5 μM ADP) of 24% (24 hours) and 37% (Day 5) as compared to IPA

of 39% (24 hours) and 58% (Day 5) in the extensive metabolisers and 37% (24 hours) and 60% (Day

5) in the intermediate metabolisers. When poor metabolisers received the 600 mg/150 mg regimen,

active metabolite exposure was greater than with the 300 mg/75 mg regimen. In addition, IPA was

32% (24 hours) and 61% (Day 5), which were greater than in poor metabolisers receiving the 300

mg/75 mg regimen, and were similar to the other CYP2C19 metaboliser groups receiving the 300

mg/75 mg regimen. An appropriate dose regimen for this patient population has not been established

in clinical outcome trials (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Active Metabolite Pharmacokinetics and Antiplatelet Responses by CYP2C19

Metaboliser

Status

Dose

Ultrarapid

(n=10)

Extensive

(n=10)

Intermediate

(n=10)

Poor

(n=10)

AUClast

(ng.h/mL)

300 mg (Day 1)

33 (11)

39 (24)

31 (14)

14 (6)

600 mg (Day 1)

56 (22)

70 (46)

56 (27)

23 (7)

75 mg (Day 5)

11 (5)

12 (6)

9.9 (4)

3.2 (1)

150 mg (Day 5)

18 (8)

19 (8)

16 (7)

7 (2)

IPA (%)a*

300 mg (24 h)

40 (21)

39 (28)

37 (21)

24 (26)

600 mg(24 h)

51 (28)

49 (23)

56 (22)

32 (25)

75 mg (Day 5)

56 (13)

58 (19)

60 (18)

37 (23)

150 mg (Day 5)

68 (18)

73 (9)

74 (14)

61 (14)

Values are mean (SD)

a * Inhibition of platelet aggregation with 5μM ADP; larger value indicates greater platelet inhibition

The influence of CYP2C19 genotype on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel has not

been evaluated in prospective, randomized, controlled trials. There have, however, been a number of

retrospective analyses to evaluate this effect in patients treated with clopidogrel for whom there are

genotyping results. Such studies have included CHARISMA (n=2428) and TRITON-TIMI 38 (n=1477),

as well as a number of published cohort studies.

Special Populations

The pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel is not known in these special populations.

Geriatric Patients

Plasma concentrations of the main circulating metabolite are significantly higher in the elderly (≥ 75

years) compared to young healthy volunteers but these higher plasma levels were not associated with

differences in platelet aggregation and bleeding time. No dosage adjustment is needed for the elderly.

Renally Impaired Patients

After repeated doses of 75mg clopidogrel per day, plasma levels of the main circulating metabolite

were lower in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 5 to 15mL/min)

compared to subjects with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 60mL/min) or

healthy subjects. Although inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was lower (25%) than that

observed in healthy volunteers, the prolongation of bleeding time was similar in healthy volunteers

receiving 75mg of clopidogrel per day. No dosage adjustment is needed in renally impaired patients.

However, experience with clopidogrel is limited in patients with severe renal impairment. Therefore

clopidogrel should be used with caution in this population.

Gender

No significant difference was observed in the plasma levels of the main circulating metabolite between

males and females. In a small study comparing men and women, less inhibition of ADP-induced

platelet aggregation was observed in women, but there was no difference in prolongation of bleeding

time. In the large, controlled clinical study (Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischemic

Events; CAPRIE), the incidence of clinical outcome events, other adverse clinical events, and

abnormal clinical laboratory parameters was similar in men and women.

Ethnicity

The prevalence of CYP2C19 alleles that result in intermediate and poor CYP2C19 metabolism differs

according to race/ethnicity (see PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacogenetics). From literature, limited data

in Asian populations are available to assess the clinical implication of genotyping of this CYP on

clinical outcome events.

Clinical trials

The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel in preventing vascular ischaemic events has been evaluated in

the CAPRIE study, a double-blind clinical trial comparing clopidogrel to aspirin. In addition, three other

studies (CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT) have been conducted for unapproved indications.

Myocardial Infarction or Stroke, or Established Peripheral Arterial Disease

The CAPRIE study included 19,185 patients with established atherosclerosis or history of

atherothrombosis as manifested by myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke or peripheral arterial

disease. Patients were randomised to clopidogrel 75mg/day or aspirin 325mg/day, and were followed

for 1 to 3 years.

The trial’s primary outcome was the time to first occurrence of new ischaemic stroke (fatal or not), new

myocardial infarction (fatal or not), or other vascular death. Deaths not easily attributable to

nonvascular causes were all classified as vascular.

Outcome Events of the Primary Analysis

Clopidogrel

Aspirin

Patients

9599

9586

IS (fatal or not)

438 (4.56%)

461 (4.81%)

MI (fatal or not)

275 (2.86%)

333 (3.47%)

Other vascular death

226 (2.35%)

226 (2.36%)

Total

939 (9.78%)

1020 (10.64%)

As shown in the table above, clopidogrel was associated with a lower incidence of outcome events of

every kind. The overall risk reduction (9.78% vs. 10.64%) was 8.7%, p=0.045. Similar results were

obtained when all-cause mortality and all-cause strokes were counted instead of vascular mortality

and ischaemic strokes (risk reduction 6.9%). In patients who survived an on-study stroke or

myocardial infarction, the incidence of subsequent events was again lower in the clopidogrel group.

The curves showing the overall event rate are shown in the figure below. The event curves separated

early and continued to diverge over the 3-year follow-up period.

Indications

Prevention of vascular ischaemia associated with atherothrombotic events (myocardial infarction,

stroke and vascular death) in patients with a history of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to clopidogrel or any of the excipients.

Severe liver impairment.

Active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer and intracranial haemorrhage.

Breast-feeding (see PRECAUTIONS-Pregnancy and Lactation).

Precautions

General

As with the other anti-platelet agents, clopidogrel prolongs bleeding time and should be used with

caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from trauma, surgery or other

pathological conditions, and in patients receiving treatment with acetylsalicylic acid, heparin,

glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective-serotonin

reuptake inhibitors as follows:

If a patient is to undergo elective surgery and an anti-platelet effect is not desired, clopidogrel

should be discontinued at least 5 days prior to surgery.

If the patient is at high risk of ophthalmic bleeding due to intraocular lesions clopidogrel should

be used with extra caution.

Although clopidogrel has shown a lower incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to

aspirin in a large controlled clinical trial (CAPRIE), the drug should be used with caution in

patients who have lesions with a propensity to bleed (particularly gastrointestinal and

intraocular). Drugs that might induce such lesions (such as aspirin and Non-Steroidal Anti-

Inflammatory Drugs) should be used with caution in patients taking clopidogrel (see

PRECAUTIONS-Interactions With Other Medicines).

Patients should be told that it may take longer than usual for bleeding to stop when they take

clopidogrel (alone or in combination with aspirin), and that they should report any unusual

bleeding (site or duration) to their physician. Patients should inform physicians and dentists

that they are taking clopidogrel before any surgery is scheduled and before any new drug is

taken.

In patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke who are at high risk of recurrent

ischaemic events, the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel has been shown to increase

major bleeding. Therefore, such addition should be undertaken with caution outside of clinical

situations where the combination has proven to be beneficial.

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

When coronary artery bypass surgery is to be performed, clopidogrel should be suspended at least 5

days before surgery to reduce the risk of bleeding (see ADVERSE EFFECTS).

Pharmacogenetics

Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is mainly due to an active

metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by genetic

variations in CYP2C19 and by concomitant medications that interfere with CYP2C19. Genetic variants

of other CYP450 enzymes may also affect the formation of clopidogrel’s active metabolite. In patients

who are CYP2C19 poor metabolisers clopidogrel at recommended doses forms less of the active

metabolite of clopidogrel and has a smaller effect on platelet function. Poor metabolisers with acute

coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel at

recommended doses may exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates than do patients with normal

CYP2C19 function (see PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacogenetics and CLINICAL TRIALS,

Pharmacogenetics). Tests are available to identify a patient's CYP2C19 genotype; these tests can be

used as an aid in determining therapeutic strategy. Although a higher dose regimen in poor

metabolisers increases antiplatelet response (see PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacogenetics), an

appropriate dose regimen for this patient population has not been established in clinical outcome

trials. Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor

metabolisers (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Pharmacogenetics).

CYP2C19 Metabolism

Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that inhibit

the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite

of clopidogrel. The clinical relevance of this interaction is uncertain. Concomitant use of strong or

moderate CYP2C19 inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole) should be discouraged (See PHARMACOLOGY,

Pharmacogenetics and PRECAUTIONS). If a proton pump inhibitor is to be used concomitantly with

clopidogrel, consider using one with less CYP2C19 inhibitory activity, such as pantoprazole.

Medicinal products that inhibit CYP2C19 include omeprazole and esomeprazole, fluvoxamine,

fluoxetine, moclobemide, voriconazole, fluconazole, ticlopidine, ciprofloxacin, cimetidine,

carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and chloramphenicol.

Renal impairment

Experience with clopidogrel is limited in patients with severe renal impairment. Therefore clopidogrel

should be used with caution in this population.

Hepatic impairment

Experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may have bleeding diatheses.

Clopidogrel should therefore be used with caution in this population.

In the CAPRIE study, it was not mandatory to discontinue study medication in the case of an acute

outcome event (acute myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke or lower extremity amputation) and the

patients had a favourable outcome as compared to the aspirin group.

In view of the lack of data, clopidogrel cannot be recommended in acute ischaemic stroke (less than 7

days).

Haematological

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) has been reported very rarely following the use of

clopidogrel, sometimes after a short exposure. It is characterised by thrombocytopenia and

microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia associated with either neurological findings, renal dysfunction or

fever. TTP is a potentially fatal condition requiring prompt treatment, including plasmapheresis

(plasma exchange).

Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, aplastic anaemia and pancytopenia have also been reported very

rarely in patients taking clopidogrel (see ADVERSE EFFECTS).

Due to the risk of bleeding and haematological undesirable effects, blood cell count determination

and/or other appropriate testing should be promptly considered whenever clinical symptoms

suggestive of bleeding arise during the course of treatment. Because of the increased risk of bleeding,

the concomitant administration of warfarin with clopidogrel is not recommended.

As with other anti-platelet agents, clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at

risk of increased bleeding from trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions and in patients

receiving treatment with aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heparin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

inhibitors or thrombolytics. Patients should be followed carefully for any signs of bleeding including

occult bleeding, especially during the first weeks of treatment and/or after invasive cardiac procedures

or surgery.

Acquired haemophilia

Acquired haemophilia has been reported following the use of clopidogrel. In cases of confirmed

isolated activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) prolongation with or without bleeding, acquired

haemophilia should be considered. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acquired haemophilia

should be managed and treated by specialists and clopidogrel should be discontinued.

Cross-reactivity among thienopyridines

Patients should be evaluated for history of hypersensitivity to another thienopyridine (such as

ticlopidine, prasugrel) since allergic cross-reactivity among thienopyridines has been reported (see

ADVERSE EFFECTS). Thienopyridines may cause mild to severe allergic reactions such as rash,

angioedema, or haematological reactions such as thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Patients who

had developed a previous allergic reaction and/or haematological reaction to one thienopyridine may

have an increased risk of developing the same or another reaction to another thienopyridine.

Monitoring for cross-reactivity is advised.

Effects on fertility

Clopidogrel was found to have no effect on fertility of male and female rats at oral doses up to

400mg/kg per day and was not teratogenic in rats (up to 500mg/kg per day) and rabbits (up to

300mg/kg per day).

Use in pregnancy (Category B1)

Clopidogrel and/or its metabolites are known to cross the placenta in pregnant rats and rabbits.

However, teratology studies in rats and rabbits at doses up to 500mg and 300mg/kg/day PO,

respectively, revealed no evidence of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. There are no adequate and

well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always

predictive of a human response, clopidogrel should not be used in women during pregnancy.

Use in lactation

Studies in rats have shown that clopidogrel and/or its metabolites are excreted in breast milk (see

CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Carcinogenicity

There was no evidence of carcinogenic effects when clopidogrel was given in the diet for 78 weeks to

mice and 104 weeks to rats at doses up to 77mg/kg per day (representing an exposure ≈ 18 times the

anticipated patient exposure, based on plasma AUC for the main circulating metabolite in elderly

subjects).

Genotoxicity

Clopidogrel was not genotoxic in four in vitro tests (Ames test, DNA-repair test in rat hepatocytes,

gene mutation assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts and metaphase chromosome analysis of human

lymphocytes) and in one in vivo test (micronucleus test by the oral route in mice).

Interactions with other medicines

Aspirin

A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and aspirin is possible, leading to increased risk

of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution (See PRECAUTIONS).

However, clopidogrel and aspirin have been administered together for up to one year (see also

PRECAUTIONS – General).

Injectable Anticoagulants

A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and heparin is possible, leading to increased risk

of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution.

Anti-platelet agents (such as eptifibatide, ticlopidine, tirofiban)

The effects of clopidogrel and other drugs which inhibit platelet aggregation may be additive, leading

to an increased risk of bleeding.

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors

Clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from

trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions that receive concomitant glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

inhibitors.

Thrombolytics

The safety of the concomitant administration of clopidogrel, fibrin or non-fibrin specific thrombolytic

agents and heparins was assessed in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of

clinically significant bleeding was similar to that observed when thrombolytic agents and heparins are

co-administered with aspirin. The safety of concomitant administration of clopidogrel with thrombolytic

agents has not been formally established and should be undertaken with caution.

Drugs associated with bleeding risk:

There is an increased risk of bleeding due to the potential additive effect. The concomitant

administration of drugs associated with bleeding risk should be undertaken with caution.

Oral Anticoagulants (including warfarin)

The concomitant administration of clopidogrel with warfarin is not recommended since it may increase

the intensity of bleeding.

Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

In a clinical study conducted in healthy volunteers, the concomitant administration of clopidogrel and

naproxen increased occult gastrointestinal blood loss. However, due to the lack of interaction studies

with other NSAIDs, it is presently unclear whether there is an increased risk of gastrointestinal

bleeding with all NSAIDs. Consequently, there is a potential increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding

and NSAIDs and clopidogrel should be co-administered with caution (see PRECAUTIONS).

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

Since SSRI’s affect platelet activation and increase the risk of bleeding, the concomitant

administration of SSRIs with clopidogrel should be undertaken with caution.

Drugs metabolised by Cytochrome P450 2C9

At high concentrations in vitro, clopidogrel inhibits cytochrome P450 (2C9). Accordingly, clopidogrel

may interfere with the metabolism of phenytoin, tamoxifen, tolbutamide, warfarin, fluvastatin, and

many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, but there are no data with which to predict the

magnitude of these interactions. Caution should be used when any of these drugs is co-administered

with clopidogrel.

Other concomitant therapy

Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that inhibit

the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite

of clopidogrel and a reduction in clinical efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is uncertain.

Avoid concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP2C19 inhibitors, including omeprazole,

esomeprazole, cimetidine, fluconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, etravirine, felbamate, fluoxetine,

fluvoxamine and ticlopidine. If a proton pump inhibitor is to be used concomitantly with clopidogrel,

consider using one with less CYP2C19 inhibitory activity, such as pantoprazole.

Medicinal products that inhibit CYP2C19 include omeprazole and esomeprazole, fluvoxamine,

fluoxetine, moclobemide, voriconazole, fluconazole, ciprofloxacin, cimetidine, carbamazepine,

oxcarbazepine, ticlopidine and chloramphenicol.

Studies of specific drug interactions yielded the following results:

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI): In a crossover clinical study, 72 healthy subjects were administered

clopidogrel (300mg loading dose followed by 75mg/day) alone and omeprazole (80mg at the same

time as clopidogrel) for 5 days. The exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was decreased by

46% (day 1) and 42% (day 5) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were administered together. Mean

inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was diminished by 47% (24 hours) and 30% (day 5) when

clopidogrel and omeprazole were administered together.

In another study 72 healthy subjects were given the same doses of clopidogrel and omeprazole but

the drugs were administered 12 hours apart from the clopidogrel standard regimen; the results were

similar indicating that administering clopidogrel and omeprazole at different times does not prevent

their interaction, and it is likely to be driven by the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on CYP2C19.

In a third interaction study with omeprazole 80 mg administered with a higher dose regimen of

clopidogrel (600-mg loading dose followed by 150 mg/day), a degree of interaction was observed

similar to that noted in the other omeprazole interaction studies. However, active metabolite formation

and platelet aggregation were at the same level as clopidogrel administered alone at the standard

dose regimen.

In a crossover clinical study, healthy subjects were administered clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose

followed by 75 mg/day) alone and with pantoprazole (80 mg at the same time as clopidogrel) for 5

days. The exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was decreased by 20% (Day 1) and 14%

(Day 5) when clopidogrel and pantoprazole were administered together. Mean inhibition of platelet

aggregation was diminished by 15% (24 hours) and 11% (Day 5) when clopidogrel and pantoprazole

were administered together. These results indicate that clopidogrel can be administered with

pantoprazole.

A number of other clinical studies have been conducted with clopidogrel and other concomitant

medications to investigate the potential for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. No

clinically significant pharmacodynamic interactions were observed when clopidogrel was co-

administered with atenolol, nifedipine, or both atenolol and nifedipine. Furthermore, the

pharmacodynamic activity of clopidogrel was not significantly influenced by the co-administration of

phenobarbital, cimetidine, or oestrogen.

Although the administration of clopidogrel 75 mg/day did not modify the pharmacokinetics of S-

warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate) or INR in patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy (at least 2

months), coadministration of clopidogrel with warfarin increases the risk of bleeding because of

independent effects on haemostasis. However, at high concentrations in vitro, clopidogrel inhibits

CYP2C9. It is unlikely that clopidogrel interferes with the metabolism of drugs such as phenytoin and

tolbutamide and the NSAIDs, which are metabolised by cytochrome P450 2C9. Data from the CAPRIE

study indicate that phenytoin and tolbutamide can be safely co-administered with clopidogrel.

The pharmacokinetics of digoxin or theophylline were not modified by the co-administration of

clopidogrel. Antacids did not modify the extent of clopidogrel absorption.

In addition to the above specific interaction studies, patients entered into clinical trials with clopidogrel

received a variety of concomitant medications including diuretics, beta-blocking agents, angiotensin

converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium antagonists, cholesterol lowering agents, coronary vasodilators,

anti-diabetic agents (including insulin), anti-epileptic agents, GPIIb/IIIa antagonists and hormone

replacement therapy without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions.

CYP2C8 substrate drugs:

Clopidogrel has been shown to increase repaglinide exposure in healthy volunteers. In vitro studies

have shown the increase in repaglinide exposure is due to inhibition of CYP2C8 by the glucuronide

metabolite of clopidogrel. Due to the risk of increased plasma concentrations, concomitant

administration of clopidogrel and drugs primarily cleared by CYP2C8 metabolism (e.g., repaglinide,

paclitaxel) should be undertaken with caution.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No impairment of driving or psychometric performance was observed following clopidogrel

administration.

Adverse effects

Clinical Studies Experience

Clopidogrel has been evaluated for safety in more than 42,000 patients, including over 9,000 patients

treated for 1 year or more. The clinically relevant adverse events observed in CAPRIE are discussed

below.

Clopidogrel was well tolerated compared to aspirin in a large controlled clinical trial (CAPRIE). The

overall tolerability of clopidogrel in this study was similar to aspirin, regardless of age, gender and

race.

Haemorrhagic disorders

In CAPRIE, the overall incidence of any bleeding in patients treated with either clopidogrel or aspirin

was similar (9.3%). The incidence of severe bleeds was 1.4% in the clopidogrel group and 1.6% in the

aspirin group.

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage was significantly less frequent with clopidogrel (1.99%) compared to

aspirin (2.66%). The incidence of intracranial haemorrhage was 0.35% for clopidogrel compared to

0.49% for aspirin.

Haematological disorders

In CAPRIE, patients were intensively monitored for thrombocytopenia and neutropenia.

Clopidogrel was not associated with an increase in the incidence of thrombocytopenia compared to

aspirin. Very rare cases of platelet count <30 x 10

/L have been reported.

Severe neutropenia (<0.45 x 10

/L) was observed in four patients (0.04%) that received clopidogrel

and in two patients that received aspirin. Two of the 9599 patients who received clopidogrel and none

of the patients who received aspirin had a neutrophil count of zero. One of the clopidogrel treated

patients was receiving cytostatic chemotherapy, and another recovered and returned to the trial after

only temporarily interrupting treatment with clopidogrel.

Although the risk of myelotoxicity with clopidogrel appears to be quite low, this possibility should be

considered when a patient receiving clopidogrel demonstrates fever or other signs of infection.

Gastrointestinal

In CAPRIE, overall the incidence of gastrointestinal events (e.g. abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastritis

and constipation) in patients receiving clopidogrel was significantly lower than in those receiving

aspirin. The incidence of peptic, gastric, or duodenal ulcers was 0.68% for clopidogrel and 1.15% for

aspirin. Cases of diarrhoea were reported at a higher frequency in the clopidogrel group (4.46%)

compared to the aspirin group (3.36%).

Rash

In CAPRIE, there were significantly more patients with rash in the clopidogrel group (4.2%) compared

to the aspirin group (3.5%).

Treatment Discontinuation

In the clopidogrel and aspirin treatment groups of the CAPRIE study, discontinuation due to adverse

events occurred in approximately 13% of patients after 2 years of treatment. Adverse events occurring

in ≥ 2.5% of patients on clopidogrel in the CAPRIE controlled clinical trial are shown in the table below

regardless of relationship to clopidogrel. The median duration of therapy was 20 months, with a

maximum of 3 years.

Adverse events occurring in ≥ 2.5% of patients receiving clopidogrel in CAPRIE

Clinically relevant adverse reactions not listed above pooled from CAPRIE, CURE, CLARITY and

COMMIT studies with an incidence of ≥ 0.1% as well as all serious and clinically relevant adverse

reactions are listed below according to the World Health Organisation classification. Their frequency is

defined using the following conventions: common: > 1/100 (1%) and < 1/10 (10%); uncommon: ≥

1/1000 (0.1%) and < 1/100 (1%) and rare: ≥ 1/10000 (0.01%) and < 1/1000 (0.1%).

Central and peripheral nervous system disorders

Uncommon: Paraesthesia

Rare: Vertigo

Gastrointestinal system disorders

Uncommon: Flatulence, constipation, vomiting, gastric, peptic or duodenal ulcer

Platelet, bleeding and clotting disorders

Uncommon: Bleeding time increased

White cell and RES disorders

Uncommon: Leucopenia and eosinophilia

Post-Marketing Experience

The following have been reported spontaneously from worldwide post-marketing experience:

Note:

very common

≥ 1/10 (≥ 10%)

common

≥ 1/100 and < 1/10 (≥ 1% and < 10%)

uncommon

≥ 1/1000 and < 1/100 (≥ 0.1% and < 1.0%)

rare

≥ 1/10,000 and < 1/1000 (≥ 0.01% and < 0.1%)

very rare

< 1/10,000 (< 0.01%)

Musculoskeletal, connective and bone

Very rare: Arthralgia, arthritis, myalgia

Immune system disorders

Very rare: anaphylactoid reactions, serum sickness

Uncommon: cross-reactive hypersensitivity among thienopyridine (such as ticlopidine, prasugrel) (see

PRECAUTIONS)

Vascular disorders

Very rare: vasculitis, hypotension

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare: Neutropenia (including severe neutropenia)

Very rare: serious cases of bleeding, mainly skin, musculo-skeletal (haemarthrosis, haematoma), eye

(conjunctival, ocular, retinal) and respiratory tract bleeding (haemoptysis, pulmonary haemorrhage),

epistaxis, haematuria and haemorrhage of operative wound. Fatal haemorrhage, including intracranial,

gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal haemorrhage. Cases of serious haemorrhage have been reported

in patients taking clopidogrel concomitantly with aspirin or clopidogrel with aspirin and heparin (see

PRECAUTIONS - Interactions with Other Medicines)

Very rare cases of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have been reported. Very rare cases

of acquired haemophilia A have been reported.

Very rare: aplastic anaemia, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, anaemia

Uncommon: thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, leucopenia, decreased neutrophils, decreased platelets,

increased bleeding time

Skin and Subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common: bruising

Uncommon: rash, pruritus, skin bleeding (purpura)

Very rare: maculopapular, exfoliative or erythematous rash, urticaria, angioedema, bullous dermatitis

(erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalised

exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)), eczema, lichen planus,drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome,

drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)

Psychiatric

Very rare: confusion, hallucinations

Nervous System disorders

Uncommon: intracranial bleeding (some cases were reported with fatal outcome), headache,

paraesthesia, dizziness

Very rare: taste disturbances

Eye disorders

Very rare: serious cases of eye bleeding (conjunctival, ocular, retinal)

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Rare: vertigo

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare: hepatitis, acute liver failure, abnormal liver function test

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: gastrointestinal haemorrhage, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia

Uncommon: gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, vomiting, gastritis, nausea, constipation, flatulence

Rare: retro-peritoneal haemorrhage

Very rare: gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal haemorrhage with fatal outcome, colitis (including

ulcerative or lymphocytic colitis), pancreatitis, stomatitis

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Common: epistaxis

Very rare: respiratory tract bleeding (haemoptysis, pulmonary haemorrhage), bronchospasm,

interstitial pneumonitis, esoinophilic pneumonia

Renal and Urinary disorders

Uncommon: haematuria

Very rare: glomerulopathy, glomerulonephritis, blood creatinine increased

Reproductive systems and breast disorders

Very rare: gynaecomastia

Investigations

Uncommon: bleeding time prolonged, neutrophil count decreased, platelet count decreased

Very rare: blood creatinine increase, abnormal liver function tests

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common: bleeding at the puncture site

Very rare: fever, syncope

Dosage and administration

Clopidogrel should be taken once a day with or without food.

Adults

Generally, clopidogrel should be given as a single daily dose of 75mg.

No dosage adjustment is necessary for either elderly patients or patients with renal impairment. (see

PHARMACOKINETICS).

Pharmacogenetics

CYP2C19 poor metaboliser status is associated with diminished antiplatelet response to clopidogrel.

Although a higher dose regimen in poor metabolisers increases antiplatelet response (see

PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacogenetics), an appropriate dose regimen for this patient population has

not been established in clinical outcome trials. Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies

in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolisers.

Children and adolescents

Safety and efficacy in subjects below the age of 18 have not been established.

Overdosage

Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 0800 POISON or 0800 764766

for advice on management

of overdose.

In animals, clopidogrel at single oral doses ≥ 1500mg/kg caused necrotic-haemorrhagic gastritis,

oesophagitis and enteritis in mice, rats and baboons. Necrotic tubulopathy and tubulo-interstitial

nephritis were also noted in mice.

Overdose following clopidogrel administration may lead to prolonged bleeding time and subsequent

bleeding complications. Appropriate therapy should be considered if bleeding is observed. No antidote

to the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel has been found. If prompt correction of prolonged

bleeding time is required, platelet transfusion may reverse the effects of clopidogrel.

Presentation and storage conditions

Clopidogrel Sandoz 75mg film-coated tablets - Pink colored film coated round shaped tablets with

imprinted on one side and plain on the other side.

Blister pack containing 28 tablets.

Store below 25

Medicine classification

Prescription Medicine

Name and address

Novartis New Zealand Limited

PO Box 99102

Newmarket

AUCKLAND 1149

Telephone: 0800 354 335

Date of preparation

9 February 2016

Similar products

Search alerts related to this product

Share this information